KEGG   ENZYME: 3.1.1.64
Entry
EC 3.1.1.64                 Enzyme                                 
Name
retinoid isomerohydrolase;
all-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase (ambiguous);
retinol isomerase (ambiguous);
all-trans-retinol isomerase:hydrolase (ambiguous);
all-trans-retinylester 11-cis isomerohydrolase;
RPE65 (gene name)
Class
Hydrolases;
Acting on ester bonds;
Carboxylic-ester hydrolases
Sysname
all-trans-retinyl ester acylhydrolase, 11-cis retinol-forming
Reaction(IUBMB)
an all-trans-retinyl ester + H2O = 11-cis-retinol + a fatty acid [RN:R08388]
Reaction(KEGG)
R08388
Substrate
all-trans-retinyl ester [CPD:C02075];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Product
11-cis-retinol [CPD:C00899];
fatty acid [CPD:C00162]
Comment
This enzyme, which operates in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), catalyses the cleavage and isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol, a key step in the regeneration of the visual chromophore in the vertebrate visual cycle [4]. Interaction of the enzyme with the membrane is critical for its enzymic activity [6].
History
EC 3.1.1.64 created 1989 (EC 5.2.1.7 created 1989, incorporated 2011), modified 2011
Pathway
ec00830  Retinol metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K11158  retinoid isomerohydrolase / lutein isomerase
Genes
HSA6121(RPE65)
PTR744567(RPE65)
PPS100994777(RPE65)
GGO101152566(RPE65)
PON100453879(RPE65)
NLE100588685(RPE65)
HMH116469910(RPE65)
MCC701764(RPE65)
MCF102122358(RPE65)
MTHB126962922
MNI105498352(RPE65)
CSAB103224643(RPE65)
CATY105595883(RPE65)
PANU101017887(RPE65)
TGE112635158(RPE65)
MLEU105550109(RPE65)
RRO104675297(RPE65)
RBB108532954(RPE65)
TFN117092079(RPE65)
PTEH111539710(RPE65)
CANG105508088(RPE65)
CJC100397525(RPE65)
SBQ101044000(RPE65)
CIMI108305985(RPE65)
CSYR103249819(RPE65)
MMUR105872873(RPE65)
LCAT123635529(RPE65)
PCOQ105817924(RPE65)
OGA100949307(RPE65)
MMU19892(Rpe65)
MCAL110291358(Rpe65)
MPAH110320423(Rpe65)
RNO89826(Rpe65)
MCOC116094428(Rpe65)
ANU117707619(Rpe65)
MUN110542710(Rpe65)
CGE100767488(Rpe65)
MAUA101841952(Rpe65)
PROB127230775(Rpe65)
PLEU114707607(Rpe65)
MORG121450683(Rpe65)
MFOT126506141
AAMP119801269(Rpe65)
NGI103746374(Rpe65)
HGL101716560(Rpe65)
CPOC100721944(Rpe65)
CCAN109698727(Rpe65)
DORD105988821(Rpe65)
DSP122109622(Rpe65)
PLOP125354326(Rpe65)
NCAR124970939
MMMA107146458(Rpe65)
OCU100352270
OPI101520754(RPE65)
TUP102499334(RPE65)
GVR103602215(RPE65)
CFA403803(RPE65)
CLUD112679190(RPE65)
VVP112910518(RPE65)
NPO129519989(RPE65)
AML100469948(RPE65)
UMR103663024(RPE65)
UAH113254543(RPE65)
UAR123795323(RPE65)
ELK111143374
LLV125099325
MPUF101671454(RPE65)
MNP132001901(RPE65)
MLK131809341(RPE65)
NVS122900077(RPE65)
ORO101373037(RPE65)
EJU114208479(RPE65)
ZCA113916106(RPE65)
MLX118020203(RPE65)
NSU110570126(RPE65)
LWW102743168
FCA101090034(RPE65)
PYU121027297(RPE65)
PCOO112868932(RPE65)
PBG122480624(RPE65)
LRUF124516196
PTG102952948(RPE65)
PPAD109266700(RPE65)
PUC125912519
AJU106982702
HHV120220328(RPE65)
BTA282043(RPE65)
BOM102280727(RPE65)
BIU109557070(RPE65)
BBUB102402660(RPE65)
BBIS104991595(RPE65)
CHX102174353(RPE65)
OAS101116520(RPE65)
BTAX128045071(RPE65)
ODA120857012(RPE65)
CCAD122436841(RPE65)
MBEZ129541152(RPE65)
SSC100516743(RPE65)
CFR102504541(RPE65)
CBAI105075547(RPE65)
CDK105096629(RPE65)
VPC102528101(RPE65)
BACU103007082(RPE65)
LVE103082229(RPE65)
OOR101280600(RPE65)
DLE111178432(RPE65)
PCAD102976541(RPE65)
PSIU116754598(RPE65)
NASI112392775(RPE65)
ECB100068802(RPE65)
EPZ103556149(RPE65)
EAI106847823(RPE65)
MYB102264093(RPE65)
MYD102757349(RPE65)
MMYO118677155(RPE65)
MLF102428728(RPE65)
PKL118724360(RPE65)
EFUS103284111(RPE65)
MNA107540093(RPE65)
DRO112309291(RPE65)
SHON118984568(RPE65)
AJM119049324(RPE65)
PDIC114497616(RPE65)
PHAS123816555(RPE65)
MMF118627156(RPE65)
PPAM129069945(RPE65)
HAI109384924(RPE65)
RFQ117027287(RPE65)
PALE102887612(RPE65)
PGIG120583212(RPE65)
PVP105295883(RPE65)
RAY107520571(RPE65)
MJV108391176(RPE65)
TOD119236157(RPE65)
SARA101539243(RPE65)
LAV100664258(RPE65)
TMU101352162
ETF101658533(RPE65)
DNM101422039(RPE65)
MDO100030329(RPE65)
GAS123244042(RPE65)
SHR100934519(RPE65)
AFZ127563172
PCW110212969(RPE65)
OAA100081441(RPE65)
GGA395700(RPE65)
PCOC116235820(RPE65)
MGP100539517(RPE65)
CJO107317795(RPE65)
TPAI128072756(RPE65)
LMUT125693677(RPE65)
NMEL110402639(RPE65)
APLA101801077(RPE65)
ACYG106043625(RPE65)
CATA118256942(RPE65)
AFUL116492222(RPE65)
TGU100219959(RPE65)
LSR110473233(RPE65)
SCAN103815080(RPE65)
OTC121332659(RPE65)
PRUF121356107(RPE65)
GFR102043093(RPE65)
FAB101808678(RPE65)
OMA130256462(RPE65)
PHI102103362(RPE65)
PMAJ107208456(RPE65)
CCAE111932946(RPE65)
CCW104695122(RPE65)
CBRC103621677(RPE65)
ZAB102063920(RPE65)
ACHL103811072(RPE65)
SVG106862223(RPE65)
MMEA130585487(RPE65)
HRT120756747(RPE65)
FPG101918066(RPE65)
FCH102049984(RPE65)
CLV102085010(RPE65)
EGZ104123866(RPE65)
NNI104009234(RPE65)
PCRI104033042(RPE65)
PLET104628784(RPE65)
PCAO104049861(RPE65)
ACUN113483067(RPE65)
TALA116965163(RPE65)
PADL103913982(RPE65)
AFOR103898460(RPE65)
ACHC115349146(RPE65)
HALD104314394(RPE65)
HLE104828068(RPE65)
AGEN126042036
GCL127019244
CCRI104158305(RPE65)
CMAC104485055(RPE65)
MUI104537000(RPE65)
BREG104642522(RPE65)
FGA104076428(RPE65)
GSTE104261565(RPE65)
LDI104349794(RPE65)
MNB103769000(RPE65)
OHA104335051(RPE65)
NNT104408732(RPE65)
SHAB115611344(RPE65)
DPUB104307983(RPE65)
PGUU104470855(RPE65)
ACAR104518303(RPE65)
CPEA104386035(RPE65)
AVIT104276684(RPE65)
CVF104285495(RPE65)
RTD128913919(RPE65)
CUCA104066573(RPE65)
TEO104376254(RPE65)
BRHI104497799(RPE65)
AAM106486524(RPE65)
AROW112970298(RPE65)
NPD112945545(RPE65)
TGT104567512(RPE65)
DNE112982252(RPE65)
SCAM104153244(RPE65)
ASN102369965(RPE65)
AMJ102560040(RPE65)
CPOO109307581(RPE65)
GGN109305417(RPE65)
PSS102456788(RPE65)
CMY102935763(RPE65)
CCAY125640890(RPE65)
DCC119859826(RPE65)
CPIC101936194(RPE65)
TST117881743(RPE65)
CABI116819900(RPE65)
MRV120370338(RPE65)
ACS100556137(rpe65)
ASAO132774034(RPE65)
PVT110079873(RPE65)
SUND121928995(RPE65)
PBI103048404(RPE65)
PMUR107300213(RPE65)
CTIG120301632(RPE65)
TSR106544932(RPE65)
PGUT117674966(RPE65)
APRI131195037(RPE65)
PTEX113436034(RPE65)
NSS113411100(RPE65)
PMUA114598441(RPE65)
PRAF128415623(RPE65)
ZVI118088650(RPE65)
HCG128324472(RPE65)
GJA107114347(RPE65)
STOW125433812(RPE65)
EMC129330190(RPE65)
XLA379961(rpe65.S) 447613(rpe65.L)
XTR100145692(rpe65)
NPR108795952(RPE65)
RTEM120946038(RPE65)
BBUF120978890(RPE65)
BGAR122943687(RPE65)
MUO115472219(RPE65)
GSH117346801(RPE65)
DRE100004076(rpe65c) 393724(rpe65a)
SRX107705134 107708597 107743896 107752442
SANH107657893 107693590 107700531
SGH107549757 107562849 107599830(rpe65) 107600304
CCAR109054720 109054721 109058080 109106900
CAUA113046454 113069845 113107075
CGIB127951348 127964249 128018068
PTET122351041 122357548(rpe65a)
LROH127169921(rpe65c) 127183024(rpe65a)
OMC131527276(rpe65a) 131545344
PPRM120461548(rpe65a) 120473993 120481924
RKG130091596 130100114(rpe65a)
MAMB125251988(rpe65a) 125279955
CIDE127506450 127517170
MASI127424183 127440766
TROS130554641(rpe65a) 130567812
TDW130418097(rpe65a) 130440191
MANU129413845 129441437(rpe65a)
IPU108267184(rpe65a)
IFU128610383(rpe65a)
PHYP113526413(rpe65)
SMEO124387492(rpe65a)
TFD113658413(rpe65a)
TVC132848968(rpe65a)
AMEX103023405(rpe65)
CMAO118812952 118826161(rpe65a)
EEE113581111(rpe65) 113589215
CHAR105894984 105898922(rpe65a)
TRU101062285 101065379(rpe65)
TFS130528909 130538854(rpe65a)
TNGGSTEN00016195G001 GSTEN00023173G001
LCO104935905(rpe65) 104936272
NCC104940880 104955976
TBEN117488911(rpe65a) 117495541
CGOB115006939 115022075(rpe65)
PGEO117445814 117462834(rpe65a)
GACU117558429(rpe65a) 117560449(rpe65c)
EMAC134866364(rpe65a) 134869075(rpe65c)
ELY117253333 117271695(rpe65a)
EFO125895624 125902002(rpe65a)
PLEP121937702 121951236(rpe65a)
SLUC116038155 116046008(rpe65a)
ECRA117950031 117954781(rpe65a)
ESP116696211
PFLV114561069 114564889(rpe65)
GAT120816104(rpe65a) 120823503
PPUG119206198(rpe65a) 119217183
AFB129089079(rpe65a) 129095162
CLUM117729342 117746744(rpe65a)
PSWI130194209 130197636(rpe65a)
MSAM119900319 119902021(rpe65a)
SCHU122877807 122887382(rpe65a)
CUD121512430 121520043(rpe65a)
ALAT119011324(rpe65a) 119028714
MZE101479363 101485028
ONL100694376 100702412
OAU116315493 116318669(rpe65a)
OLA101163729 101172024(rpe65)
OML112147229(rpe65a) 112150125
CSAI133452787(rpe65a) 133457852
XMA102217285(rpe65) 102231785
XCO114146496 114150554
XHE116722033 116726470 116730884
PRET103463130 103479670 103479672
PFOR103131468 103135788(rpe65)
PLAI106951621(rpe65) 106964853
PMEI106930879(rpe65) 106932818
GAF122839182 122841139(rpe65a)
PPRL129361794(rpe65a) 129373830
CVG107090023(rpe65) 107101167
CTUL119789901 119795652(rpe65a)
GMU124870182(rpe65a) 124873461
NFU107383888(rpe65) 107393007
KMR108241705(rpe65a) 108249795
ALIM106531270 106533754
NWH119414550(rpe65a) 119430516
AOCE111577418(rpe65) 111583702
MCEP125009440 125010667(rpe65a)
CSEM103396306 103399738
POV109640235 109641398(rpe65)
SSEN122758609 122780954
HHIP117760857 117778748(rpe65a)
HSP118118098(rpe65a) 118121062
SMAU118311257(rpe65a) 118318305
LCF108879593 108883387(rpe65a)
SDU111223483 111231109(rpe65)
SLAL111653254(rpe65) 111671744
XGL120790833 120798784(rpe65a)
HCQ109521243(rpe65) 109525455
SSCV125976127 125985297
SBIA133503595 133510995(rpe65a)
PEE133406167 133412052(rpe65a)
PTAO133480941 133489392(rpe65a)
BPEC110159583 110172291
MALB109952235 109957756
BSPL114844894(rpe65a) 114853594
SJO128362201 128369662
SASA106569137 106584339 106613887
STRU115157162 115158369 115192515
OTW112244994 112250987 112260591
OMY110521549 110524415 110530459(rpe65a)
OGO123996963 124009989 124037071
ONE115108415 115114543 115145473
OKI109874676 109882208 109902606
OKE118359148 118390921 118401672
SALP111956276 111971359 111975570
SNH120051829 120055213 120055319
CCLU121532692 121534650 121539895
ELS105011682(rpe65) 105019406
SFM108919070(rpe65) 108935006
PKI111847527(rpe65)
AANG118225022 118228866
LOC102690422(rpe65)
PSPA121326874
ARUT117417355
PSEX120538348
LCM102364001(RPE65)
CMK103189136
CPLA122554402
HOC132818734
LERI129701008
PMRN116948830(RPE65)
LRJ133351951(RPE65)
PCAN112555861
PMAX117344163
ADF107351382
SPIS111324579
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:3793734]
  Authors
Blaner WS, Das SR, Gouras P, Flood MT.
  Title
Hydrolysis of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinyl palmitate by homogenates of human retinal epithelial cells.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 262:53-8 (1987)
Reference
2  [PMID:3494246]
  Authors
Bernstein PS, Law WC, Rando RR.
  Title
Isomerization of all-trans-retinoids to 11-cis-retinoids in vitro.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:1849-53 (1987)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.84.7.1849
Reference
3  [PMID:3603006]
  Authors
Bridges CD, Alvarez RA.
  Title
The visual cycle operates via an isomerase acting on all-trans retinol in the pigment epithelium.
  Journal
Science 236:1678-80 (1987)
DOI:10.1126/science.3603006
  Sequence
[rno:89826]
Reference
4  [PMID:16116091]
  Authors
Moiseyev G, Chen Y, Takahashi Y, Wu BX, Ma JX.
  Title
RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12413-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0503460102
  Sequence
[hsa:6121]
Reference
5  [PMID:19490105]
  Authors
Nikolaeva O, Takahashi Y, Moiseyev G, Ma JX
  Title
Purified RPE65 shows isomerohydrolase activity after reassociation with a phospholipid membrane.
  Journal
FEBS J 276:3020-30 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07021.x
  Sequence
[gga:395700]
Reference
6  [PMID:20100834]
  Authors
Golczak M, Kiser PD, Lodowski DT, Maeda A, Palczewski K
  Title
Importance of membrane structural integrity for RPE65 retinoid isomerization activity.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 285:9667-82 (2010)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.063941
  Sequence
[bta:282043]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 3.1.1.64
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 3.1.1.64
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 3.1.1.64
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 3.1.1.64
CAS: 106389-24-6

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