EC                 Enzyme                                 

peptidyl-glutamate 4-carboxylase;
vitamin K-dependent carboxylase;
gamma-glutamyl carboxylase;
peptidyl-glutamate 4-carboxylase (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-epoxidizing)
Carbon-carbon lyases;
peptidyl-glutamate 4-carboxylase (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol-epoxidizing)
peptidyl-4-carboxyglutamate + 2,3-epoxyphylloquinone + H2O = peptidyl-glutamate + CO2 + O2 + phylloquinol [RN:R05144]
(other) R09991
peptidyl-4-carboxyglutamate [CPD:C06246];
2,3-epoxyphylloquinone [CPD:C05849];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
peptidyl-glutamate [CPD:C06247];
CO2 [CPD:C00011];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
phylloquinol [CPD:C03313]
The enzyme can use various vitamin-K derivatives, including menaquinol, but does not contain iron. The mechanism appears to involve the generation of a strong base by oxygenation of vitamin K. It catalyses the post-translational carboxylation of glutamate residues of several proteins of the blood-clotting system. 9--12 glutamate residues are converted to 4-carboxyglutamate (Gla) in a specific domain of the target protein. The 4-pro-S hydrogen of the glutamate residue is removed [5] and there is an inversion of stereochemistry at this position [6].
EC created 2009, modified 2011
ec00130  Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
K10106  vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase
HSA: 2677(GGCX)
PTR: 459364(GGCX)
PPS: 100979139(GGCX)
GGO: 101133597(GGCX)
PON: 100171564(GGCX)
NLE: 100605566(GGCX)
MCC: 695628(GGCX)
MCF: 102116153(GGCX)
CSAB: 103219944(GGCX)
CATY: 105587647(GGCX)
PANU: 101020748(GGCX)
RRO: 104677047(GGCX)
RBB: 108518115(GGCX)
TFN: 117062132(GGCX)
PTEH: 111551132(GGCX)
CJC: 100412061(GGCX)
SBQ: 101035344(GGCX)
MMUR: 105876590(GGCX)
MMU: 56316(Ggcx)
MCAL: 110295983(Ggcx)
MPAH: 110315938(Ggcx)
RNO: 81716(Ggcx)
MCOC: 116099081(Ggcx)
MUN: 110558893(Ggcx)
CGE: 100774482(Ggcx)
PLEU: 114681594(Ggcx)
NGI: 103739792(Ggcx)
HGL: 101703456(Ggcx)
CCAN: 109686177(Ggcx)
OCU: 100346091(GGCX)
TUP: 102479702(GGCX)
CFA: 475769(GGCX)
VVP: 112916676(GGCX)
VLG: 121491115(GGCX)
AML: 100477985(GGCX)
UMR: 103671848(GGCX)
UAH: 113243151(GGCX)
ORO: 101380661(GGCX)
MPUF: 101674852(GGCX)
MLX: 118007911(GGCX)
FCA: 101085622(GGCX)
PTG: 102962433(GGCX)
PPAD: 109263806(GGCX)
AJU: 106978202(GGCX)
HHV: 120220500(GGCX)
BTA: 281190(GGCX)
BOM: 102277857(GGCX)
BIU: 109566174(GGCX)
BBUB: 102393009(GGCX)
CHX: 102170242(GGCX)
OAS: 443129(GGCX)
ODA: 120851488(GGCX)
SSC: 100620337(GGCX)
CFR: 102506387(GGCX)
CBAI: 105072101(GGCX)
CDK: 105104153(GGCX)
BACU: 103007146(GGCX)
LVE: 103089680(GGCX)
OOR: 101285440(GGCX)
DLE: 111165448(GGCX)
PCAD: 102985096(GGCX)
ECB: 100067312(GGCX)
EPZ: 103548273(GGCX)
EAI: 106838601(GGCX)
MYB: 102242720(GGCX)
MYD: 102767774(GGCX)
MMYO: 118668788(GGCX)
MNA: 107528662(GGCX)
HAI: 109371334(GGCX)
DRO: 112302990(GGCX)
SHON: 118982322(GGCX)
AJM: 119059873(GGCX)
MMF: 118630499(GGCX)
PALE: 102898204(GGCX)
PGIG: 120594588(GGCX)
RAY: 107506180(GGCX)
MJV: 108405890(GGCX)
TOD: 119259131(GGCX)
LAV: 100675417(GGCX)
TMU: 101340769
MDO: 100030057(GGCX)
SHR: 116421248(GGCX)
PCW: 110196278(GGCX)
OAA: 100077833(GGCX)
PCOC: 116231292(GGCX)
MGP: 104916860
CJO: 107323599(GGCX)
NMEL: 110387173(GGCX)
TGU: 100221126(GGCX)
LSR: 110478265(GGCX)
PMOA: 120504920(GGCX)
FAB: 101818545(GGCX)
PHI: 102110670(GGCX)
PMAJ: 107213872(GGCX)
CCAE: 111944157(GGCX)
CCW: 104683151(GGCX)
AAM: 106493802(GGCX)
ASN: 102383382(GGCX)
AMJ: 106737680
CPOO: 109317369(GGCX)
GGN: 109295521(GGCX)
PSS: 102449866(GGCX)
CMY: 102930896(GGCX)
CPIC: 101940387(GGCX)
TST: 117872830(GGCX)
CABI: 116830718(GGCX)
ACS: 100555036(ggcx)
PVT: 110072205(GGCX)
PBI: 103064362(GGCX)
PMUR: 107283246(GGCX)
TSR: 106550210(GGCX)
PGUT: 117673367(GGCX)
PMUA: 114602665(GGCX)
ZVI: 118086699(GGCX)
GJA: 107120342(GGCX)
XLA: 444473(ggcx.L)
XTR: 100144666(ggcx)
NPR: 108786501(GGCX)
DRE: 557240(ggcx)
CAUA: 113054121(ggcx)
IPU: 108276729(ggcx)
PHYP: 113544161(ggcx)
AMEX: 103037933(ggcx)
EEE: 113575128(ggcx)
TRU: 101067681(ggcx)
LCO: 104923320(ggcx)
NCC: 104944448(ggcx)
CGOB: 115016566(ggcx)
ELY: 117269650(ggcx)
PLEP: 121959554(ggcx)
SLUC: 116035102(ggcx)
ECRA: 117959301(ggcx)
PFLV: 114571490(ggcx)
GAT: 120832229(ggcx)
MSAM: 119914441(ggcx)
CUD: 121524933(ggcx)
MZE: 101484617(ggcx)
ONL: 100703429(ggcx)
OAU: 116322404(ggcx)
OLA: 101172424(ggcx)
OML: 112163202(ggcx)
XMA: 102224466(ggcx)
XCO: 114149555(ggcx)
XHE: 116724289(ggcx)
PRET: 103473687(ggcx)
CVG: 107092698(ggcx)
CTUL: 119771594(ggcx)
NFU: 107372879(ggcx)
KMR: 108232694(ggcx)
ALIM: 106514510(ggcx)
AOCE: 111568361(ggcx)
CSEM: 103390489(ggcx)
POV: 109626324(ggcx)
LCF: 108879865(ggcx)
SDU: 111234176(ggcx)
SLAL: 111668085(ggcx)
XGL: 120806113(ggcx)
HCQ: 109513153(ggcx)
BPEC: 110160481(ggcx)
MALB: 109963473(ggcx)
SASA: 106563193
OTW: 112231088(ggcx)
OMY: 110509897
SALP: 111964110(ggcx)
SNH: 120021309(ggcx)
ELS: 105014991(ggcx)
SFM: 108931977(ggcx)
PKI: 111849976(ggcx)
AANG: 118213230(ggcx)
LOC: 102682147(ggcx)
PSPA: 121303076(ggcx)
ARUT: 117397839(ggcx) 117969799
LCM: 102360484(GGCX)
CMK: 103187831(ggcx)
CIN: 780874(ggcx)
SCLV: 120347316
SPU: 764318
APLC: 110974161
SKO: 102801874
DME: Dmel_CG13927(GC)
DER: 6545421
DSE: 6610356
DSI: Dsimw501_GD13462(Dsim_GD13462)
DAN: 6506657
DSR: 110190904
DPE: 6600635
DMN: 108151764
DWI: 6646452
DGR: 6557678
DAZ: 108614065
DNV: 108652044
DHE: 111602887
DVI: 6624515
CCAT: 101448340
MDE: 101889022
LCQ: 111686371
ACOZ: 120952145
AARA: 120895591
AALB: 109426646
AME: 551869
ACER: 108003849
BIM: 100749841
BBIF: 117208219
BTER: 100645769
OBB: 114875533
MGEN: 117225787
NMEA: 116430835
CGIG: 122395747
SOC: 105204060
MPHA: 105840699
AEC: 105149615
ACEP: 105624485
PBAR: 105421986
VEM: 105568543
HST: 105191645
DQU: 106746013
CFO: 105250361
FEX: 115239838
LHU: 105675652
PGC: 109860098
OBO: 105281857
PCF: 106787857
NVI: 100123716
CSOL: 105369056
MDL: 103571031
CCIN: 107270980
TCA: 659418
ATD: 109594009
AGB: 108907226
LDC: 111512065
NVL: 108568265
PPYR: 116171578
OTU: 111419541
BANY: 112047340
PMAC: 106710934
PPOT: 106102403
PXU: 106125099
PRAP: 110993504
ZCE: 119831341
HAW: 110374548
TNL: 113502696
PXY: 105388304
API: 100161672
DNX: 107166675
AGS: 114126066
RMD: 113548907
CLEC: 106669169
HHAL: 106691853
NLU: 111051519
ZNE: 110828681
CSEC: 111871355
FCD: 110841759
DMK: 116932807
PVM: 113801056
HAME: 121859758
DSV: 119438165
RSAN: 119379132
RMP: 119162117
TUT: 107364188
DPTE: 113793855
CSCU: 111628100
PTEP: 107438863
SDM: 118182381
PCAN: 112576487
BGT: 106056263
GAE: 121392496
CRG: 105332560
OBI: 106881997
ADF: 107336790
AMIL: 114961251
PDAM: 113669402
SPIS: 111343419
CCRO: CMC5_035660(hsdR) CMC5_063260(hsdR)
PSL: Psta_4704
RUL: UC8_52280
GFL: GRFL_1667
ZPR: ZPR_0452
MARM: YQ22_10150
CBAL: M667_06850
DDO: I597_0466
ZGA: ZOBELLIA_2135(ggcX)
NDO: DDD_0997
MPW: MPR_0249
WIN: WPG_1078
SPON: HME9304_01912(ggcX)
MESQ: C7H62_1343
 » show all
1  [PMID:7569894]
Dowd P, Hershline R, Ham SW, Naganathan S
Vitamin K and energy transduction: a base strength amplification mechanism.
Science 269:1684-91 (1995)
2  [PMID:10068650]
Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC
Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid.
Blood 93:1798-808 (1999)
3  [PMID:17073445]
Rishavy MA, Hallgren KW, Yakubenko AV, Shtofman RL, Runge KW, Berkner KL
Bronsted analysis reveals Lys218 as the carboxylase active site base that deprotonates vitamin K hydroquinone to initiate vitamin K-dependent protein carboxylation.
Biochemistry 45:13239-48 (2006)
4  [PMID:17935315]
Silva PJ, Ramos MJ
Reaction mechanism of the vitamin K-dependent glutamate carboxylase: a computational study.
J Phys Chem B 111:12883-7 (2007)
5  [PMID:6150930]
Decottignies-Le Marechal P, Ducrocq C, Marquet A, Azerad R
The stereochemistry of hydrogen abstraction in vitamin K-dependent carboxylation.
J Biol Chem 259:15010-2 (1984)
6  [PMID:1931973]
Dubois J, Dugave C, Foures C, Kaminsky M, Tabet JC, Bory S, Gaudry M, Marquet A
Vitamin K dependent carboxylation: determination of the stereochemical course using 4-fluoroglutamyl-containing substrate.
Biochemistry 30:10506-12 (1991)
7  [PMID:22516721]
Rishavy MA, Berkner KL
Vitamin K oxygenation, glutamate carboxylation, and processivity: defining the three critical facets of catalysis by the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase.
Adv Nutr 3:135-48 (2012)
Other DBs
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