Cyclase II of Salvia officinalis (sage) produces about equal parts (-)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-camphene, plus traces of other monoterpenoids. The enzyme, which requires Mg2+ (preferred to Mn2+), can also use (3S)-Linalyl diphosphate (preferred to (3R)-linalyl diphosphate) [1-4]. The enzyme from Abies grandis (grand fir) produces roughly equal parts of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene [6-9]. Cyclase IV from Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) produces 63% (-)-beta-pinene, 26% 3-carene, and traces of alpha-pinene . Synthase III from Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) forms (-)-beta-pinene with traces of alpha-pinene and requires Mn2+ and K+ (Mg2+ is ineffective) . A cloned enzyme from Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood) gave (-)-beta-pinene with traces of (-)-alpha-pinene . The enzyme from Picea sitchensis (Sika spruce) forms 30% (-)-beta-pinene and 70% (-)-alpha-pinene . See also EC 220.127.116.11, (-)-alpha-pinene synthase, EC 18.104.22.168, (-)-camphene synthase, and EC 22.214.171.124 (+)-3-carene synthase.
Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate.