KEGG   ENZYME: 5.1.2.1Help
Entry
EC 5.1.2.1                  Enzyme                                 

Name
lactate racemase;
lacticoracemase;
hydroxyacid racemase;
lactic acid racemase;
larA (gene name)
Class
Isomerases;
Racemases and epimerases;
Acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
lactate racemase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(S)-lactate = (R)-lactate [RN:R01450]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(S)-lactate [CPD:C00186]
Product
(R)-lactate [CPD:C00256]
Comment
The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and appears to be restricted to lactic acid bacteria. It contains a unique nickel-containing cofactor, pyridinium-3-thioamide-5-thiocarboxylate mononucleotide Ni pincer complex.
History
EC 5.1.2.1 created 1961
Pathway
ec00620  Pyruvate metabolism
Orthology
K22373  lactate racemase
Genes
TCI: A7K98_01695
DES: DSOUD_0135
LPL: lp_0104(larA)
LPJ: JDM1_0105
LPT: zj316_0313(larA)
LPS: LPST_C0085
LPR: LBP_cg0087
LPZ: Lp16_0097
LPB: SH83_00445
LSA: LCA_0784
LBR: LVIS_1849
LFE: LAF_1733
LFR: LC40_1101
LFF: LBFF_1915
PPE: PEPE_1694
PPEN: T256_08335
PCE: PECL_1783
CAC: CA_C0769
CAE: SMB_G0785
CAY: CEA_G0780
CBO: CBO1006
CBA: CLB_1046
CBH: CLC_1059
CBY: CLM_1161
CBL: CLK_0446
CBB: CLD_3560
CBI: CLJ_B1051
CBF: CLI_1088
CBM: CBF_1058
CBE: Cbei_2495
CBZ: Cbs_2495
CBEI: LF65_03034
CPAS: Clopa_3455
CBV: U729_1766
CSQ: CSCA_2486
CTYK: CTK_C15740
AMT: Amet_3746
CCT: CC1_25140
PDC: CDIF630_01318(larA)
HMO: HM1_1638
ELM: ELI_3629
BPRS: CK3_17920
TTM: Tthe_1662
APR: Apre_1605
VPR: Vpar_0984
MED: MELS_2220
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:14800428]
  Authors
HUENNEKENS FM, MAHLER HR, NORDMANN J.
  Title
Studies on the cyclophorase system. XVII. The occurrence and properties of an alpha-hydroxy acid racemose.
  Journal
Arch Biochem 30:77-89 (1951)
Reference
2
  Authors
Kitahara, K., Obayashi, A. and Fukui, S.
  Title
Racemase I cell-free racemase.
  Journal
Enzymologia 15:259-266 (1953)
Reference
3  [PMID:16166538]
  Authors
Goffin P, Deghorain M, Mainardi JL, Tytgat I, Champomier-Verges MC, Kleerebezem M, Hols P
  Title
Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 187:6750-61 (2005)
DOI:10.1128/JB.187.19.6750-6761.2005
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
4  [PMID:24710389]
  Authors
Desguin B, Goffin P, Viaene E, Kleerebezem M, Martin-Diaconescu V, Maroney MJ, Declercq JP, Soumillion P, Hols P
  Title
Lactate racemase is a nickel-dependent enzyme activated by a widespread maturation system.
  Journal
Nat Commun 5:3615 (2014)
DOI:10.1038/ncomms4615
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
5  [PMID:26138974]
  Authors
Desguin B, Zhang T, Soumillion P, Hols P, Hu J, Hausinger RP
  Title
METALLOPROTEINS. A tethered niacin-derived pincer complex with a nickel-carbon bond in lactate racemase.
  Journal
Science 349:66-9 (2015)
DOI:10.1126/science.aab2272
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
6  [PMID:28374531]
  Authors
Yu MJ, Chen SL
  Title
From NAD+ to Nickel Pincer Complex: A Significant Cofactor Evolution Presented by Lactate Racemase.
  Journal
Chemistry 23:7545-7557 (2017)
DOI:10.1002/chem.201700405
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 5.1.2.1
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 5.1.2.1
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 5.1.2.1
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 5.1.2.1
CAS: 9024-05-9

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