KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.21Help
Entry
EC 1.1.1.21                 Enzyme                                 

Name
aldehyde reductase;
aldose reductase;
polyol dehydrogenase (NADP+);
ALR2;
alditol:NADP+ oxidoreductase;
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase;
NADPH-aldopentose reductase;
NADPH-aldose reductase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+ [RN:R02819 R02820]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
alditol [CPD:C00717];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
aldose [CPD:C01370];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
Has wide specificity.
History
EC 1.1.1.21 created 1961 (EC 1.1.1.139 created 1972, incorporated 1978)
Pathway
ec00040  Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
ec00051  Fructose and mannose metabolism
ec00052  Galactose metabolism
ec00561  Glycerolipid metabolism
ec00790  Folate biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00011  aldehyde reductase
Genes
HSA: 231(AKR1B1) 57016(AKR1B10)
PTR: 463867(AKR1B10) 736853(AKR1B15) 737737(AKR1B1)
PPS: 100967410(AKR1B15) 100970792 100975756(AKR1B10) 100996067(AKR1B1)
GGO: 101144124(AKR1B1) 101145822(AKR1B10) 101146188
PON: 100444840(AKR1B1) 100445201(AKR1B10) 100445574
NLE: 100585224(AKR1B1) 100585902(AKR1B10)
MCC: 106996453 705957(AKR1B1) 706528 713150
MCF: 101865018 101926277(AKR1B1) 102120093 102121104 102121743 102122400 102122997(AKR1B10) 102130632
CSAB: 103226928(AKR1B1) 103226929 103226931 103226932 103247760
RRO: 104657859 104657860 104657861 104657863(AKR1B1)
RBB: 108515792(AKR1B1) 108524507 108524990 108539216(AKR1B10)
CJC: 100387030(AKR1B10) 100387387(AKR1B1)
MMU: 11677(Akr1b3) 11997(Akr1b7) 14187(Akr1b8) 67861(Akr1b10)
MCAL: 110295915(Akr1b10) 110295916 110296013(Akr1b1)
RNO: 116463(Akr1b7) 24192(Akr1b1) 286921(Akr1b8) 296972(Akr1b10)
CGE: 100689318(Akr1b8) 100751272(Akr1b1) 100757262 100758120
NGI: 103736560(Akr1b10) 103736561(Akr1b1)
HGL: 101705915 101706493(Akr1b10) 101720124(Akr1b1)
OCU: 100009122(AKR1B1) 100341518(AKR1B10)
TUP: 102468970 102469817 102494851(AKR1B1) 102495669(AKR1B10)
CFA: 607537(AKR1B1)
VVP: 112928987(AKR1B1)
AML: 100479370(AKR1B1)
UMR: 103678252(AKR1B1)
UAH: 113264345(AKR1B1)
ORO: 101366220(AKR1B1)
ELK: 111152013
FCA: 101095406(AKR1B1)
PTG: 102953851(AKR1B1)
PPAD: 109269032(AKR1B1)
AJU: 106975707
BTA: 317748(AKR1B1) 525193(AKR1B10) 616199
BOM: 102283791(AKR1B1) 102284069(AKR1B10) 102286471
BIU: 109557651(AKR1B1) 109557652(AKR1B10)
BBUB: 102392991(AKR1B1) 102402798(AKR1B10)
CHX: 102187190(AKR1B1) 102187646(AKR1B10)
OAS: 101107697 101120824(AKR1B1)
SSC: 396816(AKR1B1)
CFR: 102513557(AKR1B1)
CDK: 105085402(AKR1B1)
BACU: 103005435(AKR1B10) 103010471(AKR1B1)
LVE: 103088864(AKR1B1) 103089484
OOR: 101271027 101287897(AKR1B1)
DLE: 111176115 111178199(AKR1B1)
PCAD: 102985317(AKR1B1)
ECB: 100065145(AKR1B1)
EPZ: 103551318(AKR1B1)
EAI: 106830010(AKR1B1)
MYB: 102254354(AKR1B10) 102256742(AKR1B1)
MYD: 102753092(AKR1B1) 102772161(AKR1B10)
MNA: 107544356 107544458(AKR1B10)
HAI: 109389373(AKR1B1)
DRO: 112297391 112299891(AKR1B1)
PALE: 102887071(AKR1B1)
MJV: 108400068(AKR1B1)
MDO: 100021757(AKR1B1)
SHR: 100923275
PCW: 110219188(AKR1B1)
GGA: 395338(AKR1B10L2) 418169(AKR1B10L1) 418170(AKR1B10L3) 418171(AKR1E2) 425137(AKR1B1L) 772271(AKR1B10L4)
PBI: 103050065
PMUR: 107294356
TSR: 106551076
XLA: 108704367(akr1b1.L) 398904(akr1b1.S)
XTR: 496546(akr1b1)
NPR: 108789955(AKR1B1)
DRE: 553452(akr1b1.2)
IPU: 100528852(akr1b1) 108264227
HCQ: 109523886
LCM: 102361295(AKR1B1) 102365366
CMK: 103191362(akr1b1)
APLC: 110977102
DME: Dmel_CG10638(CG10638) Dmel_CG10863(CG10863) Dmel_CG12766(CG12766) Dmel_CG40064(ARY) Dmel_CG6083(CG6083) Dmel_CG6084(CG6084) Dmel_CG9436(CG9436)
DSI: Dsimw501_GD10303(Dsim_GD10303) Dsimw501_GD12714(Dsim_GD12714) Dsimw501_GD12788(Dsim_GD12788) Dsimw501_GD12789(Dsim_GD12789) Dsimw501_GD13308(Dsim_GD13308) Dsimw501_GD13309(Dsim_GD13309)
HST: 105188430
CFO: 109609937
LHU: 105670784
BTAB: 109044471
CLEC: 106670322
CEL: CELE_Y39G8B.1(Y39G8B.1)
CBR: CBG20740
BMY: Bm1_43535
TSP: Tsp_12149
SHX: MS3_00286
ADF: 107332252
CRB: 17887787
BRP: 103842543
BOE: 106307704
RSZ: 108806027
CPAP: 110808220
CIT: 102619628
TCC: 18607678
DZI: 111297349
GMX: 100806500
GSJ: 114379175
VRA: 106780536
VAR: 108339519
VUN: 114168431
CCAJ: 109798653
CAM: 101498878
LANG: 109355489
FVE: 101301627
RCN: 112174568
PPER: 18786310
PMUM: 103331068
ZJU: 107426562
CSV: 101214993
CMOS: 111455356
CPEP: 111811448
RCU: 8284383
JCU: 105643826
HBR: 110649340
MESC: 110612897
POP: 7494293
PEU: 105141625
JRE: 108986997
VVI: 100243586
SLY: 101248625
SPEN: 107008264
SOT: 102596820
CANN: 107845532
NSY: 104249826
NTO: 104117914
NAU: 109218898
INI: 109165543
OEU: 111410562
LSV: 111903726
CCAV: 112525439
BVG: 104884740
NNU: 104607499
BDI: 100840746
PDA: 103724378
EGU: 105034107
MUS: 103998852
DCT: 110100570
PEQ: 110036225
AOF: 109827816
PPP: 112295320
DDI: DDB_G0268058(alrC) DDB_G0285053(alrB) DDB_G0293850(alrA)
DFA: DFA_04854(alrA) DFA_06886
EHI: EHI_029620(466.t00004)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:4216364]
  Authors
Attwood MA, Doughty CC.
  Title
Purification and properties of calf liver aldose reductase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 370:358-68 (1974)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2744(74)90097-7
Reference
2  [PMID:36151]
  Authors
Boghosian RA, McGuinness ET.
  Title
Affinity purification and properties of porcine brain aldose reductase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 567:278-86 (1979)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2744(79)90113-X
Reference
3  [PMID:14401390]
  Authors
HERS HG.
  Title
[Aldose reductase.]
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 37:120-6 (1960)
DOI:10.1016/0006-3002(60)90085-8
Reference
4  [PMID:4381350]
  Authors
Scher BM, Horecker BL.
  Title
Pentose metabolism in Candida. 3. The triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific polyol dehydrogenase of Candida utilis.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 116:117-28 (1966)
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.21
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.1.21
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.1.21
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.21
CAS: 9028-31-3

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