EC               Enzyme                                 

sphingolipid 4-desaturase;
dehydroceramide desaturase
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With oxidation of a pair of donors resulting in the reduction of O2 to two molecules of water
BRITE hierarchy
dihydroceramide,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (4,5-dehydrogenating)
a dihydroceramide + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4E)-sphing-4-enine ceramide + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O [RN:R06519]
dihydroceramide [CPD:C12126];
ferrocytochrome b5 [CPD:C00999];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
(4E)-sphing-4-enine ceramide [CPD:C00195];
ferricytochrome b5 [CPD:C00996];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
The enzyme, which has been characterized from plants, fungi, and mammals, generates a trans double bond at position 4 of sphinganine bases in sphingolipids [1]. The preferred substrate is dihydroceramide, but the enzyme is also active with dihydroglucosylceramide [2]. Unlike EC, sphingolipid 8-desaturase, this enzyme does not contain an integral cytochrome b5 domain [4] and requires an external cytochrome b5 [3]. The product serves as an important signalling molecules in mammals and is required for spermatide differentiation [5].
EC created 2015
ec00600  Sphingolipid metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
K04712  sphingolipid 4-desaturase/C4-monooxygenase
HSA: 123099(DEGS2) 8560(DEGS1)
PTR: 453157(DEGS2) 457770(DEGS1)
PPS: 100979702(DEGS2) 100990486(DEGS1)
GGO: 101143812(DEGS2) 101151016(DEGS1)
PON: 100171788(DEGS1) 100444414(DEGS2)
NLE: 100591022(DEGS1) 100606261(DEGS2)
MCC: 702128(DEGS1) 717222(DEGS2)
MCF: 102125533(DEGS1) 102146231(DEGS2)
CSAB: 103229686(DEGS2) 103230017(DEGS1)
RRO: 104654459(DEGS2) 104677277(DEGS1)
RBB: 108528244(DEGS1) 108542338(DEGS2)
CJC: 100404123(DEGS1) 100409287(DEGS2)
SBQ: 101029219(DEGS2) 101034740(DEGS1)
MMU: 13244(Degs1) 619326(9130409I23Rik) 70059(Degs2)
RNO: 289322(RGD1564463) 314438(Degs2) 58970(Degs1)
NGI: 103726249 103726263(Degs1) 103727650(Degs2)
HGL: 101706415(Degs2) 101722992(Degs1)
CCAN: 109677085(Degs1) 109694353(Degs2)
OCU: 100342774 100345221(DEGS2) 100355393(DEGS1)
TUP: 102484126(DEGS2) 106734250(DEGS1)
CFA: 490395(DEGS1) 490854(DEGS2)
AML: 100472421(DEGS2) 100478672(DEGS1)
UMR: 103667253(DEGS1) 103673578(DEGS2)
ORO: 101365656(DEGS1) 101366847(DEGS2)
FCA: 101080546(DEGS2) 101083993(DEGS1)
PTG: 102972723(DEGS1)
AJU: 106983185(DEGS1)
BTA: 507290(DEGS1) 540994(DEGS2)
BOM: 102267014(DEGS2) 102270794(DEGS1)
BIU: 109570649(DEGS1) 109575437(DEGS2)
PHD: 102320597(DEGS1) 102334208(DEGS2)
CHX: 102179052(DEGS2) 102181802(DEGS1)
OAS: 100192315(DEGS1) 101118389(DEGS2)
SSC: 100135677(DEGS1) 100739329(DEGS2)
CFR: 102511645(DEGS1) 102514149(DEGS2)
CDK: 105095393(DEGS2) 105099817(DEGS1)
BACU: 103009449(DEGS1) 103012505(DEGS2)
LVE: 103077083(DEGS1) 103083645 103091108(DEGS2)
OOR: 101269383(DEGS1) 101281613(DEGS2)
ECB: 100049834(DEGS2) 100055442(DEGS1)
EPZ: 103556478(DEGS1) 103564051(DEGS2)
EAI: 106833179(DEGS1) 106839663(DEGS2)
MYB: 102251258(DEGS2) 102260316(DEGS1)
MYD: 102761894(DEGS2) 102768904(DEGS1)
HAI: 109381071(DEGS2) 109381186(DEGS1)
RSS: 109437086(DEGS1) 109458161(DEGS2)
PALE: 102877713(DEGS2) 102884338(DEGS1)
LAV: 100663518(DEGS1) 100677351(DEGS2)
MDO: 100018776(DEGS1) 100022759(DEGS2)
SHR: 100924041(DEGS1) 100933090(DEGS2)
OAA: 100079563(DEGS2) 100081682(DEGS1) 100088407
GGA: 421327(DEGS1) 423454(DEGS2)
MGP: 100545871(DEGS1) 100547168(DEGS2)
CJO: 107311009(DEGS1) 107315308(DEGS2)
APLA: 101791732(DEGS2) 101803108(DEGS1)
ACYG: 106031546(DEGS1) 106033723(DEGS2)
TGU: 100219126(DEGS1) 100225864(DEGS2)
GFR: 102044700(DEGS1) 102044947(DEGS2)
FAB: 101817336(DEGS2) 101820925(DEGS1)
PHI: 102110893(DEGS1) 102114412(DEGS2)
PMAJ: 107201542(DEGS1) 107205859(DEGS2)
CCW: 104685558(DEGS1) 104686450(DEGS2)
FPG: 101918839(DEGS2) 101919611(DEGS1)
FCH: 102048090(DEGS1) 102059577(DEGS2)
CLV: 102084187(DEGS1) 102086116(DEGS2)
EGZ: 104124506(DEGS2) 104124691(DEGS1)
AAM: 106482702(DEGS1) 106482961(DEGS2)
ASN: 102372084 102373680(DEGS2) 102374259(DEGS1)
AMJ: 102559976(DEGS1) 102573648 106737226(DEGS2)
PSS: 102455413 102456288(DEGS2) 102457738(DEGS1)
CMY: 102936544(DEGS1) 102939815 102941197(DEGS2)
CPIC: 101933091(DEGS1) 101934087(DEGS2) 101944949
ACS: 100551621(degs2) 100551856(degs1) 100560415
PVT: 110070304(DEGS2) 110075366(DEGS1) 110075723
PBI: 103057812(DEGS1) 103058861(DEGS2) 103062400
GJA: 107116946 107121524(DEGS2) 107121631(DEGS1)
XLA: 108700206 108716481(degs1.L) 108717695(degs1.S) 380539(degs3.L) 446670 446989(degs2.L)
XTR: 100495063(degs2) 394549(degs3) 493214(degs1)
NPR: 108787065(DEGS1) 108791127 108801754(DEGS2)
DRE: 327075(degs1) 402799(degs2)
IPU: 100528134(degs2) 108260864(degs1)
AMEX: 103035033(degs1) 103039355(degs2)
TRU: 101071715(degs2) 101072518
LCO: 104921571(degs2) 104938997(degs1)
NCC: 104957390(degs1) 104960358(degs2)
MZE: 101475928(degs1) 101481400(degs2)
OLA: 101158246(degs2) 101175288(degs1)
XMA: 102226056(degs2) 102230059(degs1)
PRET: 103458891(degs2) 103476669(degs1)
NFU: 107376444 107392298(degs2)
CSEM: 103376871(degs2) 103387773(degs1)
LCF: 108888113 108894847(degs1)
HCQ: 109517137(degs1) 109526113(degs2)
BPEC: 110155422(degs2) 110156995(degs1)
ELS: 105011018 105015975(degs2) 105023239(degs1)
SFM: 108941515(degs2) 108942606(degs1)
LCM: 102355762 102357565(DEGS1) 102358925(DEGS2)
CMK: 103175334(degs2) 103181614(degs1)
SPU: 587766
APLC: 110981957
DME: Dmel_CG9078(ifc)
DSI: Dsimw501_GD23376(Dsim_GD23376)
DYA: Dyak_GE25800(Dyak_ifc)
MDE: 101900309
AAG: 5577178
AME: 100578035
BIM: 100746260
BTER: 100644949
AEC: 105146118
ACEP: 105624284
PBAR: 105430648
CFO: 105254886
LHU: 105669721
PGC: 109860326
NVI: 100116927
TCA: 660778
DPA: 109543045
NVL: 108569904
BMOR: 101744040
PMAC: 106721272
PRAP: 110997933
PXY: 105389100
API: 100162405
DNX: 107165376
ZNE: 110832977
FCD: 110853896
TUT: 107366821
CEL: CELE_F33D4.4(F33D4.4) CELE_Y54E5A.1(ttm-5)
BMY: Bm1_54630
TSP: Tsp_03742
CRG: 105320205
MYI: 110463500
SHX: MS3_00627
HMG: 100209713
ATH: AT4G04930(DES-1-LIKE)
CRB: 17881667
CSAT: 104707649
BRP: 103839798
BOE: 106317439
CPAP: 110817954
CIT: 102607890
TCC: 18596872
EGR: 104445178
GMX: 100792937(DES1.2) 100810780(DES1.1)
VRA: 106775237
VAR: 108341878
CCAJ: 109803659
CAM: 101512972
LJA: Lj6g3v2043190.1(Lj6g3v2043190.1)
ADU: 107468729
AIP: 107623981
LANG: 109330235
FVE: 101307465
PPER: 18780571
PMUM: 103324743
PAVI: 110766790
PXB: 103929689
ZJU: 107423895
CSV: 101207762
CMO: 103486276
MCHA: 111010944
RCU: 8279484
JCU: 105649524
POP: 18103006
VVI: 100854247
SLY: 543709
SPEN: 107002661
SOT: 102583804
CANN: 107845766
INI: 109158823
OEU: 111370571
LSV: 111905532
DCR: 108206957
SOE: 110802441
OSA: 4330104
DOSA: Os02t0639600-01(Os02g0639600)
OBR: 102705693
BDI: 100834457
ATS: 109732110(LOC109732110)
SBI: 8082875
ZMA: 103646156
SITA: 101752771
DCT: 110104929
AOF: 109839596
ATR: 18423108
PPP: 112275635
MNG: MNEG_2991
APRO: F751_5185
ERC: Ecym_2648
KMX: KLMA_40111(dsd1)
PIC: PICST_54788(FAD3)
CAUR: QG37_01659
SLB: AWJ20_4618(DES1)
NCR: NCU08927
MGR: MGG_13187
SSCK: SPSK_06354
MAW: MAC_04942
MAJ: MAA_03210
CMT: CCM_09611
MBE: MBM_04946
ANI: AN4405.2
ANG: ANI_1_294184(An04g01320)
CIM: CIMG_13770(CIMG04127)
ABE: ARB_01623
TVE: TRV_03635
PTE: PTT_10469
SPO: SPBC3B8.07c(dsd1)
CNE: CNA06240
MGL: MGL_0733
DDI: DDB_G0269738(desA)
DFA: DFA_06927(desA)
SMIN: v1.2.004853.t1(symbB.v1.2.004853.t1)
NGD: NGA_0673910(DEGS) NGA_0673920(DEGS)
TCR: 510565.20
SCL: sce3478
BMX: BMS_0949
BID: Bind_0284
MSL: Msil_1351
MSC: BN69_0791
CPI: Cpin_5868
FLN: FLA_1786
MUC: MuYL_1054
MGOT: MgSA37_00742(desA)
SLI: Slin_4982
FAE: FAES_4403
PSEZ: HME7025_01475(degS)
IAL: IALB_0269
 » show all
1  [PMID:5140816]
Stoffel W, Assmann G, Bister K
Metabolism of sphingosine bases. XVII. Stereospecificities in the introduction of the 4t-double bond into sphinganine yielding 4t-sphingenine (sphingosine).
Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 352:1531-44 (1971)
2  [PMID:9312549]
Michel C, van Echten-Deckert G, Rother J, Sandhoff K, Wang E, Merrill AH Jr
Characterization of ceramide synthesis. A dihydroceramide desaturase introduces the 4,5-trans-double bond of sphingosine at the level of dihydroceramide.
J Biol Chem 272:22432-7 (1997)
3  [PMID:11104018]
Causeret C, Geeraert L, Van der Hoeven G, Mannaerts GP, Van Veldhoven PP
Further characterization of rat dihydroceramide desaturase: tissue distribution,  subcellular localization, and substrate specificity.
Lipids 35:1117-25 (2000)
4  [PMID:11937514]
Ternes P, Franke S, Zahringer U, Sperling P, Heinz E
Identification and characterization of a sphingolipid delta 4-desaturase family.
J Biol Chem 277:25512-8 (2002)
[hsa:8560] [mmu:13244 70059]
5  [PMID:18978071]
Michaelson LV, Zauner S, Markham JE, Haslam RP, Desikan R, Mugford S, Albrecht S, Warnecke D, Sperling P, Heinz E, Napier JA
Functional characterization of a higher plant sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase: defining the role of sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol 149:487-98 (2009)
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