KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.38Help
Entry
EC 1.14.99.38               Enzyme                                 

Name
cholesterol 25-hydroxylase;
cholesterol 25-monooxygenase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
cholesterol,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (25-hydroxylating)
Reaction(IUBMB)
cholesterol + reduced acceptor + O2 = 25-hydroxycholesterol + acceptor + H2O [RN:R07218]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
cholesterol [CPD:C00187];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
25-hydroxycholesterol [CPD:C15519];
acceptor [CPD:C00028];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Comment
Unlike most other sterol hydroxylases, this enzyme is not a cytochrome P-450. Instead, it uses diiron cofactors to catalyse the hydroxylation of hydrophobic substrates [1]. The diiron cofactor can be either Fe-O-Fe or Fe-OH-Fe and is bound to the enzyme through interactions with clustered histidine or glutamate residues [4,5]. In cell cultures, this enzyme down-regulates cholesterol synthesis and the processing of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs).
History
EC 1.14.99.38 created 2005
Pathway
ec00120  Primary bile acid biosynthesis
Orthology
K10223  cholesterol 25-hydroxylase
Genes
HSA: 9023(CH25H)
PTR: 450584(CH25H)
PPS: 100974384(CH25H)
GGO: 101125247(CH25H)
PON: 100452872(CH25H)
NLE: 100583426(CH25H)
MCC: 694532(CH25H)
MCF: 102142173(CH25H)
CSAB: 103216226(CH25H)
RRO: 104675146(CH25H)
RBB: 108526604(CH25H)
CJC: 100405652(CH25H)
SBQ: 101034268(CH25H)
MMU: 12642(Ch25h)
RNO: 309527(Ch25h)
CGE: 100762824(Ch25h)
NGI: 103747462(Ch25h)
HGL: 101713638(Ch25h)
CCAN: 109694732(Ch25h)
OCU: 100341039(CH25H)
TUP: 102477002(CH25H)
CFA: 100856263(CH25H)
AML: 100470751(CH25H)
UMR: 103661935(CH25H)
ORO: 101385951(CH25H)
FCA: 101098893(CH25H)
BTA: 506132(CH25H)
BOM: 102271621(CH25H)
BIU: 109553211(CH25H)
PHD: 102338676(CH25H)
CHX: 102191759(CH25H)
OAS: 101121645(CH25H)
SSC: 100157868(CH25H)
CFR: 102516799(CH25H)
CDK: 105102833(CH25H)
BACU: 103019491(CH25H)
LVE: 103080660(CH25H)
OOR: 101271130(CH25H)
ECB: 100062138(CH25H)
EPZ: 103566587(CH25H)
EAI: 106831912(CH25H)
MYB: 102240160(CH25H)
MYD: 102760598(CH25H)
HAI: 109377127(CH25H)
RSS: 109451071(CH25H)
PALE: 102879471(CH25H)
LAV: 100657141(CH25H)
TMU: 101357853
SHR: 100930151(CH25H)
OAA: 100078582(CH25H)
GGA: 423788(CH25H)
MGP: 100550290(CH25H)
CJO: 107315869(CH25H)
APLA: 101794901(CH25H)
ACYG: 106044273(CH25H)
TGU: 100222744(CH25H)
GFR: 102033532(CH25H)
FAB: 101806492(CH25H)
PHI: 102102616(CH25H) 102109333
PMAJ: 107206999(CH25H)
CCAE: 111931167(CH25H)
CCW: 104696497(CH25H)
FPG: 101915580(CH25H)
FCH: 102060118(CH25H)
CLV: 102084518(CH25H)
EGZ: 104129156(CH25H)
AAM: 106487843(CH25H)
ASN: 102371917(CH25H)
AMJ: 102561874(CH25H)
PSS: 102456208(CH25H)
CMY: 102939174
CPIC: 101938379(CH25H)
ACS: 100554078 100568259(ch25h)
PVT: 110070876(CH25H)
PBI: 103058588(CH25H)
GJA: 107121654(CH25H)
XLA: 100037239(ch25h.L) 108697353(ch25h.S) 108710600
DRE: 100136851(ch25hl2) 336673(ch25hl1.1) 494109(ch25h) 798384(ch25hl1.2)
IPU: 100528885(ch25h) 108255855 108278808(ch25hl2)
CIN: 104266587
SPU: 583592
CEL: CELE_F35C8.5(F35C8.5)
CBR: CBG14675
ADF: 107342391
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:9852097]
  Authors
Lund EG, Kerr TA, Sakai J, Li WP, Russell DW.
  Title
cDNA cloning of mouse and human cholesterol 25-hydroxylases, polytopic membrane proteins that synthesize a potent oxysterol regulator of lipid metabolism.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:34316-27 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.51.34316
  Sequence
[hsa:9023] [mmu:12642]
Reference
2  [PMID:11967195]
  Authors
Chen JJ, Lukyanenko Y, Hutson JC.
  Title
25-hydroxycholesterol is produced by testicular macrophages during the early postnatal period and influences differentiation of Leydig cells in vitro.
  Journal
Biol Reprod 66:1336-41 (2002)
  Sequence
[rno:309527]
Reference
3  [PMID:12390873]
  Authors
Lukyanenko Y, Chen JJ, Hutson JC.
  Title
Testosterone regulates 25-hydroxycholesterol production in testicular macrophages.
  Journal
Biol Reprod 67:1435-8 (2002)
  Sequence
[rno:309527]
Reference
4  [PMID:7947683]
  Authors
Fox BG, Shanklin J, Ai J, Loehr TM, Sanders-Loehr J.
  Title
Resonance Raman evidence for an Fe-O-Fe center in stearoyl-ACP desaturase. Primary sequence identity with other diiron-oxo proteins.
  Journal
Biochemistry 33:12776-86 (1994)
Reference
5  [PMID:12543708]
  Authors
Russell DW.
  Title
The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis.
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 72:137-74 (2003)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.72.121801.161712
  Sequence
[mmu:12642]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.38
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.99.38
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.99.38
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.38
CAS: 60202-07-5

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