KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.8.2Help
Entry
EC 1.3.8.2                  Enzyme                                 

Name
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming);
dehydrosqualene desaturase (ambiguous);
CrtN (ambiguous);
4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (ambiguous);
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase;
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (ambiguous)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With a flavin as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene + 4 FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene + 4 FADH2 (overall reaction) [RN:R09690];
(1a) 15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene + FADH2 [RN:R09719];
(1b) all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene + FADH2 [RN:R09744];
(1c) all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene + FADH2 [RN:R09745];
(1d) all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene + FADH2 [RN:R09746]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene [CPD:C16144];
FAD [CPD:C00016];
all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene;
all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene;
all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene
Product
all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene;
FADH2 [CPD:C01352];
all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene;
all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene;
all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene
Comment
The enzyme catalyses four successive dehydrogenations, resulting in production of 4,4'-diapolycopene. While the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was only shown to produce 4,4'-diaponeurosporene in vivo [4], it is able to catalyse the last reaction in vitro [5].
History
EC 1.3.8.2 created 2011, modified 2011
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
Orthology
K10209  4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase
Genes
SAU: SA2348(crtN)
SAV: SAV2561(crtN)
SAW: SAHV_2545(crtN)
SAH: SaurJH1_2637
SAJ: SaurJH9_2583
SAM: MW2482(crtN)
SAS: SAS2447
SAR: SAR2642(crtN)
SAC: SACOL2576(crtN)
SAX: USA300HOU_2556(crtN)
SAA: SAUSA300_2498(crtN)
SAE: NWMN_2461(crtN)
SAD: SAAV_2627(crtN)
SUJ: SAA6159_02457(crtN)
SUK: SAA6008_02600(crtN)
SUC: ECTR2_2414(crtI)
SUQ: HMPREF0772_10628(crtN)
SUZ: MS7_2568(crtI)
SUX: SAEMRSA15_24640(crtN)
SUW: SATW20_26830(crtN)
SUG: SAPIG2612
SUF: SARLGA251_23360(crtN)
SAUA: SAAG_00382
SAUE: RSAU_002402(crtN)
SAUS: SA40_2315(crtN)
SAUU: SA957_2399(crtN)
SAUG: SA268_2477(crtN)
SAUZ: SAZ172_2661(crtN)
SAUV: SAI7S6_1019060(crtN)
SAUW: SAI5S5_1019000(crtN)
SAUX: SAI6T6_1019010(crtN)
SAUY: SAI8T7_1019040(crtN)
SAUF: X998_2544
SAB: SAB2434c(crtN)
SUY: SA2981_2498(crtN)
SAUB: C248_2619(crtN)
SAUC: CA347_2637(crtI)
SAUR: SABB_01123(crtN)
SAUI: AZ30_13420
SAUD: CH52_06195
SAMS: NI36_12815
SHA: SH0491(crtN)
SHH: ShL2_00392(crtN)
SLN: SLUG_01860(crtN)
SPAS: STP1_1063
SXO: SXYL_00054(crtN)
SCAP: AYP1020_1732(crtN)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:8002598]
  Authors
Wieland B, Feil C, Gloria-Maercker E, Thumm G, Lechner M, Bravo JM, Poralla K, Gotz F
  Title
Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 176:7719-26 (1994)
DOI:10.1128/JB.176.24.7719-7726.1994
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
2  [PMID:10498735]
  Authors
Raisig A, Sandmann G
  Title
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase: catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C(30) carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 181:6184-7 (1999)
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
3  [PMID:11566453]
  Authors
Raisig A, Sandmann G
  Title
Functional properties of diapophytoene and related desaturases of C(30) and C(40) carotenoid biosynthetic pathways.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1533:164-70 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S1388-1981(01)00154-8
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
4  [PMID:15933032]
  Authors
Tao L, Schenzle A, Odom JM, Cheng Q
  Title
Novel carotenoid oxidase involved in biosynthesis of 4,4'-diapolycopene dialdehyde.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3294-301 (2005)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3294-3301.2005
Reference
5  [PMID:19618272]
  Authors
Yoshida K, Ueda S, Maeda I
  Title
Carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis achieved by metabolic engineering.
  Journal
Biotechnol Lett 31:1789-93 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/s10529-009-0082-6
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.3.8.2
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.3.8.2
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.3.8.2
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.3.8.2

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