KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.99.31Help
Entry
EC 1.3.99.31                Enzyme                                 

Name
phytoene desaturase (lycopene-forming);
4-step phytoene desaturase;
four-step phytoene desaturase;
phytoene desaturase (ambiguous);
CrtI (ambiguous)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With unknown physiological acceptors
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
15-cis-phytoene:acceptor oxidoreductase (lycopene-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
15-cis-phytoene + 4 acceptor = all-trans-lycopene + 4 reduced acceptor (overall reaction) [RN:R09716];
(1a) 15-cis-phytoene + acceptor = all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor [RN:R09692];
(1b) all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor = all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor [RN:R04787];
(1c) all-trans-zeta-carotene + acceptor = all-trans-neurosporene + reduced acceptor [RN:R04798];
(1d) all-trans-neurosporene + acceptor = all-trans-lycopene + reduced acceptor [RN:R04800]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
15-cis-phytoene [CPD:C05421];
acceptor [CPD:C00028];
all-trans-phytofluene [CPD:C05414];
all-trans-zeta-carotene [CPD:C05430];
all-trans-neurosporene [CPD:C05431]
Product
all-trans-lycopene [CPD:C05432];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030];
all-trans-phytofluene [CPD:C05414];
all-trans-zeta-carotene [CPD:C05430];
all-trans-neurosporene [CPD:C05431]
Comment
Requires FAD. The enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and catalyses up to four desaturation steps (cf. EC 1.3.99.28 [phytoene desaturase (neurosporene-forming)], EC 1.3.99.29 [phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming)] and EC 1.3.99.30 [phytoene desaturase (3,4-didehydrolycopene-forming)]).
History
EC 1.3.99.31 created 2011
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K10027  phytoene desaturase
Genes
ESA: ESA_00343
CSK: ES15_0618(crtI)
CSZ: CSSP291_01545
CSJ: CSK29544_01598
CCON: AFK62_16830
CDM: AFK67_17395
CSI: P262_00910
CMJ: AFK66_020765
CUI: AFK65_16530
CMW: AFK63_01870
CTU: CTU_35430(crtI)
PSTS: E05_04200
EGE: EM595_0218(crtI)
PAM: PANA_4161(crtI)
PLF: PANA5342_p10302(crtI)
PAJ: PAJ_p0123(crtI)
PAQ: PAGR_p228
PVA: Pvag_pPag30172(crtI)
PSTW: DSJ_25965
PLU: plu4342(crtI)
PSA: PST_3873
PSTT: CH92_19210
MBS: MRBBS_2791(crtI)
GNI: GNIT_0400(crtI)
GPS: C427_1923(crtI)
LHA: LHA_1131(crtI)
HHA: Hhal_1619
PLE: B186_263(crtI)
PLY: C530_253
PLR: PAQ_258(crtI)
PLO: C548_253
PLD: PalTV_229(crtI)
PLB: PTV_229(crtI)
PLC: PAD_237(crtI)
PLI: PLF_236(crtI)
PALY: O3E_01525
SALN: SALB1_1272
RTA: Rta_07710
LIM: L103DPR2_00991(crtI)
LIH: L63ED372_00647(crtI)
HYR: BSY239_1295(crtI)
RGE: RGE_33420(crtI)
METR: BSY238_2434(crtI)
MBAC: BN1209_0337(crtI)
MBAT: BN1208_0599(crtI)
SSDC: SSDC_01994(crtI)
MXA: MXAN_0895(crtI) MXAN_4052 MXAN_7517(carC)
CCX: COCOR_00780(crtI) COCOR_07516(carC)
SUR: STAUR_0876(carC) STAUR_7080(crtI)
SCL: sce0580(crtI1)
HOH: Hoch_2211
BBA: Bd1724
BBAC: EP01_04730
AGC: BSY240_3676(crtI)
BRA: BRADO1610(crtI) BRADO6507(crtI)
BBT: BBta_6445(crtI)
BRS: S23_19090(crtI)
AOL: S58_59260
BRO: BRAD285_5790(crtI)
RPA: RPA1512(crtI)
RPB: RPB_4011
RPC: RPC_1261
RPD: RPD_3766
RPE: RPE_1315
RPT: Rpal_1699
BOS: BSY19_4063(crtI)
XAU: Xaut_3577
MDI: METDI3783(crtI) METDI4245
MSL: Msil_2029
RVA: Rvan_0155
CAK: Caul_1712
RSP: RSP_0271(crtI)
RCP: RCAP_rcc00679(crtI)
JAN: Jann_0143(crtI)
RDE: RD1_0120(ctrI)
RLI: RLO149_p940070(crtI)
DSH: Dshi_3508(crtI)
OAT: OAN307_c45360(crtI)
OAR: OA238_c48270(crtI)
PTP: RCA23_c29550(crtI)
RSU: NHU_00228
RHC: RGUI_1969
RMM: ROSMUCSMR3_03883(crtI)
LVS: LOKVESSMR4R_03622(crtI)
NAR: Saro_1816
SAL: Sala_3134
SPHK: SKP52_02255(crtI)
SPHP: LH20_01375
SMAZ: LH19_18590
SPHU: SPPYR_3143(crtI)
SPHM: G432_07840
STAX: MC45_14760
SPHI: TS85_20445
SJP: SJA_C1-01600(crtQ)
SSY: SLG_31730
SPMI: K663_01400
SPHR: BSY17_1789(crtI)
SINB: SIDU_17135
SPHT: K426_20395
SFLA: SPHFLASMR4Y_00464(crtI)
BLAS: BSY18_2752(crtI)
ELI: ELI_09885
ERR: DVR09_04940(crtI)
AAY: WYH_03019(crtI)
ANH: A6F65_00931(crtI)
ADO: A6F68_02785(crtI_2)
GOH: B932_2265
AMV: ACMV_18860(crtI)
ABG: Asbog_01464(crtI)
RRU: Rru_A0493
RRF: F11_02530
RCE: RC1_2085(crtI)
PUB: SAR11_0120(crtI)
BPF: BpOF4_14550(crtN2)
BMQ: BMQ_0654(crtI)
BMD: BMD_0657(crtI)
BMEG: BG04_2946(crtI)
BBEV: BBEV_1360(carC)
OIH: OB2461
AFL: Aflv_2201
HHD: HBHAL_2760(crtNa)
BSE: Bsel_2215
LMOE: BN418_1211
LMOB: BN419_1212
LMOD: LMON_1009
LMOW: AX10_13570
LMOM: IJ09_05290
LMP: MUO_05275
LMOX: AX24_02385
LMQ: LMM7_1037
LMS: LMLG_2877
LMOK: CQ02_05220
LWE: lwe0983
LSG: lse_0901
LIV: LIV_0945
ESI: Exig_0735
EAN: Eab7_0708
AAC: Aaci_2820
AAD: TC41_3166(crtN)
SIV: SSIL_2899
KUR: ASO14_1058(crtI)
SPOS: DV702_13360(crtI)
LPL: lp_3262(crtN)
LPJ: JDM1_2616(crtN)
LPT: zj316_3091(crtN)
LPS: LPST_C2686(crtN)
LPZ: Lp16_2568
EHR: EHR_05360
ECAS: ECBG_00593
EMU: EMQU_2798
EDU: LIU_01920
THL: TEH_04640(crtN)
LME: LEUM_1046
LCI: LCK_00788
CRN: CAR_c19240(crtN)
JDA: BW727_102019(crtN)
CBK: CLL_A1832
CBT: CLH_1671
EAC: EAL2_c15570(carC)
HMO: HM1_0681(crtN)
ELM: ELI_1119
ACL: ACL_1416(crtI)
ABRA: BN85313760(crtI) BN85314730
APAL: BN85410540(crtI)
AOC: Aocu_02600(ctrI)
MPA: MAP_3070
MAO: MAP4_0730
MAVI: RC58_03560
MAVU: RE97_03565
MAV: MAV_3885
MAVD: NF84_17730
MAVR: LA63_17910
MAVA: LA64_17900
MIT: OCO_37070
MIA: OCU_37150
MID: MIP_05614
MYO: OEM_37730
MIR: OCQ_38280
MMC: Mmcs_5075
MKM: Mkms_5163
MJL: Mjls_5454
MMI: MMAR_4806(crtI)
MMAE: MMARE11_46360(crtI)
MMM: W7S_18555
MLI: MULP_05038(crtI)
MVA: Mvan_1578
MGI: Mflv_1847
MPHL: MPHLCCUG_02048(carA2)
MVQ: MYVA_1333
ASD: AS9A_1306(crtI)
CGT: cgR_0742
CJK: jk0735(crtI)
CUR: cu1220
CUA: CU7111_1202(crtI)
CKP: ckrop_0730(crtI)
CRD: CRES_0778(crtI)
COA: DR71_306(crtI)
NFA: NFA_17370(crtI1) NFA_43990(crtI2)
NFR: ERS450000_02377(crtN_1) ERS450000_05519(crtN_2)
NCY: NOCYR_1853(crtI)
NNO: NONO_c23480(crtI1) NONO_c38570(crtI2)
NSR: NS506_03335(crtI)
RER: RER_35710(crtI)
REY: O5Y_16355
ROP: ROP_08350(crtI)
RHB: NY08_683
RFA: A3L23_03932(crtI_1)
RHS: A3Q41_04315(crtI_2)
RHU: A3Q40_01197(carA2_1)
RRT: 4535765_00117(crtN_1) 4535765_02986(crtN_2)
TPR: Tpau_0484
SCO: SCO0186(crtE)
SMA: SAVERM_1023(crtI)
SGR: SGR_59t(crtI2) SGR_6829(crtI) SGR_7080t(crtI3)
SCB: SCAB_5451(crtI)
SCT: SCAT_p0250(crtI)
SFA: Sfla_0355
SHY: SHJG_1678
SALB: XNR_5684
SALS: SLNWT_1100
STRP: F750_6656
SFI: SFUL_32
SGU: SGLAU_01555(crtI)
STRM: M444_00655
SAMB: SAM23877_0813(crtI)
SPRI: SPRI_1984
SRW: TUE45_00774(carA2)
SLE: sle_65920(sle_65920)
SRN: A4G23_05084(carA2)
SLAU: SLA_5757
STRI: C7M71_002910(crtI)
PSAI: C3B54_1159
AAU: AAur_0318
KRH: KRH_20830(crtI)
LMOI: VV02_16830
SERJ: SGUI_1798
DCO: SAMEA4475696_0721(crtN)
MPH: MLP_17760(crtI)
KFL: Kfla_3863
MGG: MPLG2_3615(crtI)
TFU: Tfu_3075
NDA: Ndas_3573
NAL: B005_0711(crtI)
SRO: Sros_3827
FAL: FRAAL2160(crtD)
NML: Namu_2502
GOB: Gobs_3309
BSD: BLASA_2153(crtI)
MMAR: MODMU_3499(crtI)
KRA: Krad_3228
SEN: SACE_1713(crtI)
AMD: AMED_2323(crtI) AMED_4075(crtI)
AMM: AMES_2297(crtI) AMES_4027(crtI)
AMZ: B737_2298(crtI) B737_4027(crtI)
AOI: AORI_1555(crtI) AORI_2310(crtI)
AJA: AJAP_27295(crtI)
AMQ: AMETH_3327(crtI)
PDX: Psed_2783
PSEE: FRP1_15665
PSEH: XF36_08155
AMI: Amir_1399
SESP: BN6_16530(crtI1) BN6_50830(crtI3)
KAL: KALB_6732
ACTI: UA75_10120
ACAD: UA74_10145
AHG: AHOG_09550(carA1)
ALL: CRK55728
SAQ: Sare_4929
MIL: ML5_0227
AMS: AMIS_1460
ASE: ACPL_254(crtI)
ACTN: L083_0167(crtI)
AFS: AFR_00885
ACTS: ACWT_0139
RXY: Rxyl_0845
AFO: Afer_0470
AYM: YM304_37410(crtI)
ELE: Elen_2268
ARP: NIES39_L03850(crtI)
GVI: gvip113(pds)
GLJ: GKIL_1835(crtN)
ANA: all7255
HAU: Haur_3185
TRO: trd_1163
ATM: ANT_13470(crtI)
CAP: CLDAP_15060(crtI)
PBF: CFX0092_A1031(crtI)
DRA: DR_0861
DGE: Dgeo_0524
DGO: DGo_CA0881(crtI2)
DWU: DVJ83_06985(crtI)
TRA: Trad_2193
TTH: TT_P0066
TTJ: TTHB109
TAQ: TO73_1255
MRB: Mrub_2710
TTR: Tter_2045
RBA: RB10270(crtI)
PIR: VN12_10470(carC)
PLM: Plim_2742
PLS: VT03_32425(carC)
TTF: THTE_0551
GES: VT84_20050(carC)
IPA: Isop_1567
PBOR: BSF38_05170(carC)
PHM: PSMK_03620(crtI)
ACA: ACP_2303
ABAS: ACPOL_3672
GAU: GAU_2408(crtI)
GBA: J421_1843
DORI: FH5T_13610
BLQ: L21SP5_01097(carA2)
SRU: SRU_2060(crtI)
SRM: SRM_00920(crtI) SRM_02276(crtI)
RMR: Rmar_1598
CPI: Cpin_5620
FLN: FLA_3503
SGN: SGRA_2915
PHE: Phep_2093
SMIZ: 4412673_01681(crtN_1) 4412673_03996(crtN_2)
MUC: MuYL_4803
MGOT: MgSA37_01902(carA2)
DFE: Dfer_2030
SLI: Slin_5960
FAE: FAES_0891
PSEZ: HME7025_02180(crtP)
HSW: Hsw_1154
FLM: MY04_1516
GFO: GFO_2499(crtI)
GFL: GRFL_0482
FJO: Fjoh_0057
FJG: BB050_02446(crtN)
FPS: FP1449(crtI)
FBR: FBFL15_2140(crtI)
FIN: KQS_04650(crtI)
ZPR: ZPR_0876
MARM: YQ22_13900
CBAL: M667_09590
CBAT: M666_09515
DOK: MED134_13076(crtI)
DDO: I597_1410(carA2)
ZGA: ZOBELLIA_2974(crtI)
MLT: VC82_2331
NDO: DDD_2397
POM: MED152_02675(crtI3)
EAO: BD94_2904
CHZ: CHSO_3060(crtI)
CTAK: 4412677_00186(crtN)
WIN: WPG_0037
TJE: TJEJU_1858(crtI)
TMAR: MARIT_0422(crtI)
AALG: AREALGSMS7_04932(carA2)
OAQ: DZC78_15180(crtI)
KOS: KORDIASMS9_03095(crtN)
MARF: CJ739_2848
FBA: FIC_01505
FBU: UJ101_02153(crtI)
CTS: Ctha_0974
IAL: IALB_0399(crtI)
MRO: MROS_1403
PTO: PTO1532
HUT: Huta_0318
SSO: SSO2907(crtI)
SOL: Ssol_0703
SSOA: SULA_0696
SSOL: SULB_0698
SSOF: SULC_0696
SAI: Saci_1732
SID: M164_0448
MSE: Msed_1073
MCN: Mcup_1041
PAS: Pars_0409
POG: Pogu_1958
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:1400305]
  Authors
Fraser PD, Misawa N, Linden H, Yamano S, Kobayashi K, Sandmann G
  Title
Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and reactivation of the recombinant Erwinia uredovora phytoene desaturase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 267:19891-5 (1992)
  Sequence
[pam:PANA_4161]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.3.99.31
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.3.99.31
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.3.99.31
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.3.99.31

DBGET integrated database retrieval system