KEGG   ENZYME: 2.1.1.160Help
Entry
EC 2.1.1.160                Enzyme                                 

Name
caffeine synthase;
dimethylxanthine methyltransferase;
3N-methyltransferase;
DXMT;
CCS1;
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine 1-N-methyltransferase
Class
Transferases;
Transferring one-carbon groups;
Methyltransferases
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine N1-methyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [RN:R07920];
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 1,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [RN:R07921];
(3) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 7-methylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine [RN:R07919]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
S-adenosyl-L-methionine [CPD:C00019];
3,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C07480];
1,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C13747];
7-methylxanthine [CPD:C16353]
Product
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine [CPD:C00021];
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [CPD:C07481];
3,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C07480]
Comment
Paraxanthine is the best substrate for this enzyme but the paraxanthine pathway is considered to be a minor pathway for caffeine biosynthesis [2,3].
History
EC 2.1.1.160 created 2007
Pathway
ec00232  Caffeine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K12731  caffeine synthase
Reference
1  [PMID:10364410]
  Authors
Kato M, Mizuno K, Fujimura T, Iwama M, Irie M, Crozier A, Ashihara H.
  Title
Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 120:579-86 (1999)
  Sequence
Reference
2  [PMID:12527364]
  Authors
Mizuno K, Okuda A, Kato M, Yoneyama N, Tanaka H, Ashihara H, Fujimura T.
  Title
Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.).
  Journal
FEBS Lett 534:75-81 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03781-X
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:12746542]
  Authors
Uefuji H, Ogita S, Yamaguchi Y, Koizumi N, Sano H.
  Title
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 132:372-80 (2003)
DOI:10.1104/pp.102.019679
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:10984041]
  Authors
Kato M, Mizuno K, Crozier A, Fujimura T, Ashihara H.
  Title
Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves.
  Journal
Nature 406:956-7 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35023072
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.1.1.160
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.1.1.160
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.1.1.160
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.1.1.160

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