KEGG   ENZYME: 2.4.1.241Help
Entry
EC 2.4.1.241                Enzyme                                 

Name
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase;
DGD1;
DGD2;
DGDG synthase (ambiguous);
UDP-galactose-dependent DGDG synthase;
UDP-galactose-dependent digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase;
UDP-galactose:MGDG galactosyltransferase;
UDP-galactose:3-(beta-D-galactosyl)-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 6-alpha-galactosyltransferase
Class
Transferases;
Glycosyltransferases;
Hexosyltransferases
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
UDP-alpha-D-galactose:1,2-diacyl-3-O-(beta-D-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol 6-alpha-galactosyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(beta-D-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol = UDP + 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-galactosyl]-sn-glycerol [RN:R04469]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
UDP-alpha-D-galactose [CPD:C00052];
1,2-diacyl-3-O-(beta-D-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol
Product
UDP [CPD:C00015];
1,2-diacyl-3-O-[alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-galactosyl]-sn-glycerol [CPD:C06037]
Comment
Requires Mg2+. Diacylglycerol cannot serve as an acceptor molecule for galactosylation as in the reaction catalysed by EC 2.4.1.46, monogalactosyldiacylglyerol synthase. When phosphate is limiting, phospholipids in plant membranes are reduced but these are replaced, at least in part, by the glycolipids digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol [3]. While both DGD1 and DGD2 are increased under phosphate-limiting conditions, DGD2 does not contribute significantly under optimal growth conditions. DGD2 is responsible for the synthesis of DGDG molecular species that are rich in C16 fatty acids at sn-1 of diacylglycerol whereas DGD1 leads to molecular species rich in C18 fatty acids [3]. The enzyme has been localized to the outer side of chloroplast envelope membranes.
History
EC 2.4.1.241 created 2005
Pathway
ec00561  Glycerolipid metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K09480  digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
Genes
ATH: AT3G11670(DGD1) AT4G00550(DGD2)
ALY: ARALYDRAFT_490510 ARALYDRAFT_686538 ARALYDRAFT_897369
CRB: 17881824 17892353
CSAT: 104705318 104712038 104737722 104745391 104764923 109124446
EUS: EUTSA_v10020090mg EUTSA_v10028633mg
BRP: 103836912 103870321
BNA: 106365523 106372022 106434959 106452493 111215733
BOE: 106295179 106318357
THJ: 104801456 104816623
CPAP: 110810554 110819516
GMX: 100777005 100796354 547762(DGD2) 548059(DGD1)
LJA: Lj0g3v0297149.1(Lj0g3v0297149.1) Lj0g3v0297149.2(Lj0g3v0297149.2) Lj1g3v2627380.1(Lj1g3v2627380.1) Lj1g3v2627390.1(Lj1g3v2627390.1) Lj1g3v2627390.2(Lj1g3v2627390.2) Lj1g3v2627390.3(Lj1g3v2627390.3) Lj1g3v4741430.1(Lj1g3v4741430.1) Lj1g3v4741440.1(Lj1g3v4741440.1) Lj1g3v4741440.2(Lj1g3v4741440.2)
NNU: 104590241
DOSA: Os02t0539100-01(Os02g0539100) Os03t0214400-01(Os03g0214400) Os03t0268300-01(Os03g0268300) Os11t0158400-01(Os11g0158400)
ATS: 109763829(LOC109763829) 109769706(LOC109769706) 109780210(LOC109780210) 109781057(LOC109781057)
CRE: CHLREDRAFT_196553(DGD1)
MNG: MNEG_9619
APRO: F751_0628
SMIN: v1.2.038003.t1(symbB.v1.2.038003.t1)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:11696551]
  Authors
Kelly AA, Dormann P.
  Title
DGD2, an arabidopsis gene encoding a UDP-galactose-dependent digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase is expressed during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 277:1166-73 (2002)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110066200
  Sequence
[ath:AT4G00550]
Reference
2  [PMID:10973486]
  Authors
Hartel H, Dormann P, Benning C.
  Title
DGD1-independent biosynthesis of extraplastidic galactolipids after phosphate deprivation in Arabidopsis.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:10649-54 (2000)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.180320497
Reference
3  [PMID:14600212]
  Authors
Kelly AA, Froehlich JE, Dormann P.
  Title
Disruption of the two digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase genes DGD1 and DGD2 in Arabidopsis reveals the existence of an additional enzyme of galactolipid synthesis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 15:2694-706 (2003)
DOI:10.1105/tpc016675
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:15590685]
  Authors
Benning C, Ohta H.
  Title
Three enzyme systems for galactoglycerolipid biosynthesis are coordinately regulated in plants.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:2397-400 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.R400032200
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.4.1.241
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.4.1.241
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.4.1.241
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.4.1.241
CAS: 69913-00-4

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