This enzyme comprises a family of proteins involved in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic protein synthesis. In the initiation factor complex, it is IF-2b (98 kDa) that binds GTP and subsequently hydrolyses it in prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, it is eIF-2 (150 kDa) that binds GTP. In the elongation phase, the GTP-hydrolysing proteins are the EF-Tu polypeptide of the prokaryotic transfer factor (43 kDa), the eukaryotic elongation factor EF-1alpha (53 kDa), the prokaryotic EF-G (77 kDa), the eukaryotic EF-2 (70-110 kDa) and the signal recognition particle that play a role in endoplasmic reticulum protein synthesis (325 kDa). EF-Tu and EF-1alpha catalyse binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal A-site, while EF-G and EF-2 catalyse the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site. GTPase activity is also involved in polypeptide release from the ribosome with the aid of the pRFs and eRFs.
EC 126.96.36.199 created 2000 as EC 188.8.131.52, transferred 2003 to EC 184.108.40.206