KEGG   ENZYME: 4.3.1.24
Entry
EC 4.3.1.24                 Enzyme                                 
Name
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase;
phenylalanine deaminase;
phenylalanine ammonium-lyase;
PAL;
L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase;
Phe ammonia-lyase
Class
Lyases;
Carbon-nitrogen lyases;
Ammonia-lyases
Sysname
L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (trans-cinnamate-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + NH3 [RN:R00697]
Reaction(KEGG)
R00697;
(other) R06132
Substrate
L-phenylalanine [CPD:C00079]
Product
trans-cinnamate [CPD:C00423];
NH3 [CPD:C00014]
Comment
This enzyme is a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family, other members of which are EC 4.3.1.3 (histidine ammonia-lyase) and EC 4.3.1.23 (tyrosine ammonia-lyase) and EC 4.3.1.25 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase). The enzyme contains the cofactor 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazol-4-one (MIO), which is common to this family [3]. This unique cofactor is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of the three amino-acid residues alanine, serine and glycine [9]. The enzyme from some species is highly specific for phenylalanine [7,8].
History
EC 4.3.1.24 created 2008 (EC 4.3.1.5 created 1965, part-incorporated 2008)
Pathway
ec00360  Phenylalanine metabolism
ec00940  Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K10775  phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
Genes
BTAB109033333 109040176
HROHELRODRAFT_78004 HELRODRAFT_78007
MMER123546922 123547245 123547312
LAK106161379 106161381 106161385 106172274 106172288
DGT114527270
XEN124436761 124442698
ATHAT2G37040(PAL1) AT3G10340(PAL4) AT3G53260(PAL2) AT5G04230(PAL3)
ALY9309209 9312266 9317554 9318728
CRB17885805 17889220 17892444
CSAT104711886 104745212 104761517 104781181 104782125 104785814 104791591 104792487
EUSEUTSA_v10010153mg EUTSA_v10016314mg EUTSA_v10020168mg
BRP103829920 103841251 103863433 103864245 103865574 103867229 103870475
BNA106352757 106355487 106371447 106371449 106371451 106377171 106382579 106388513 106388514 106388515 106389127 106391500 106398793 106452446 106452673 111197696 111207414 111211703
BOE106294585 106300639 106311920 106319945 106338875 106342153 106342166
RSZ108812387 108829906 108854852 108855076 108862526
THJ104805263 104806492 104816418 104823458
CPAP110807260 110811208 110824216
CIT102607860 102619342 102620173 102620464
CICCICLE_v10011134mg CICLE_v10011175mg CICLE_v10027912mg CICLE_v10027913mg CICLE_v10030821mg
PVY116115347 116115436 116143896 116144389 116144452 116144459 116146747
MINC123192215 123193566 123201898 123206701 123206728 123209119 123224083 123224091 123225153 123228411
TCC18586419 18590901 18597973
GRA105761806 105761807 105768043 105773643 105776733 105786418 105799777
GHI107891138 107897711 107898808 107899351 107901087 107905303 107915817 107937172 107944640 107947805 107948312 121203612 121206206
GAB108453000 108453313 108459788 108467032 108470079 108472628 108473660
DZI111284826 111286787 111293967 111295400 111296231 111296683 111310322 111311841
EGR104421642 104421783 104438154 104454225 104454226 104454227 104454228 104454229 104454954
GMX100302735(PAL2.1) 100787872(PAL3.1) 100787902(PAL1.3) 100788438(PAL1.2) 100801470(PAL2.4) 100803857(PAL2.3) 100811101(PAL1.1) 100818777(PAL2.2)
GSJ114371207 114371946 114382723 114399496 114402244 114403853 114407085 114407086
PVUPHAVU_001G1777001 PHAVU_001G177800g PHAVU_007G096100g PHAVU_007G096300g PHAVU_007G150500g PHAVU_008G289500g
VRA106755252 106764951 106772062 106772504 106778742
VAR108322393 108322394 108324009 108324188 108324227 108326061 108337955
VUN114165156 114184506 114191008 114192381 114194438
CCAJ109793961 109796589 109799986 109810584 109814359
APRC113855949 113860764 113872443 113872534 113872797 113874937
MTRMTR_1g064090 MTR_1g094780 MTR_2g094960 MTR_5g098720 MTR_7g101395 MTR_7g101425
CAM101493062 101496077 101507594 101509831(PAL2)
LJALj0g3v0121549.1(Lj0g3v0121549.1) Lj0g3v0350889.1(Lj0g3v0350889.1) Lj1g3v4590760.1(Lj1g3v4590760.1) Lj1g3v4590760.2(Lj1g3v4590760.2) Lj1g3v4590760.3(Lj1g3v4590760.3) Lj1g3v4590770.1(Lj1g3v4590770.1) Lj1g3v4590840.1(Lj1g3v4590840.1) Lj1g3v4590850.1(Lj1g3v4590850.1) Lj1g3v4590850.2(Lj1g3v4590850.2) Lj2g3v3339740.1(Lj2g3v3339740.1) Lj3g3v0602620.1(Lj3g3v0602620.1) Lj3g3v0602630.1(Lj3g3v0602630.1) Lj3g3v0602630.2(Lj3g3v0602630.2) Lj5g3v0659760.1(Lj5g3v0659760.1) Lj5g3v1811400.1(Lj5g3v1811400.1)
ADU107461690 107467923 107476298 107493496 107496075
AIP107608851 107617800 107626489 107648626
AHF112696529 112706813 112712613 112725678 112728963 112759199 112760446 112765227 112765954 112772494 112779615
LANG109325320 109328047 109331561 109347601 109348378 109353417 109356621
FVE101292546 101315259
RCN112179338 112182368 112191949
PPER18772065 18784865
PMUM103332355 103342143
PAVI110748671 110767468
PDUL117617858 117629967
MDM103419282 103430265 103440652 103450046
PXB103934948 103956742 103962533
ZJU107404213 107413687 107418573 107424108 107433056
MNT21384641 21407112 21407113 21407114 21407115 21409963
CSV101203846(PAL) 101204574 101205510 101206890 101217907 101218144 101218156 101218382 101218617 101218856 101219091 101222092 116401606
CMO103491170 103491171 103491172 103491175 103491176 103491177 103492351 103494628 103494629 103494630 103496433 103501962(pal)
BHJ120071314 120072681 120072682 120072683 120073092 120073093 120073360 120074265 120074610 120074945 120088009
MCHA111010268 111011135 111013592 111013637 111013639 111013649 111013660 111013676 111016602 111021691 111021692 111021693 111024306
CMAX111466447 111471134 111471135 111471136 111471137 111471138 111471139 111471140 111477962 111477963 111483977 111485128
CMOS111433131 111433140 111433142 111449086 111449646 111461649 111463060 111463284 111463285 111463286 111463287 111463288 111463344 111463389 111463390 111463391
CPEP111777486 111780357 111780949 111780982 111781009 111781011 111781012 111782232 111782234 111785821 111801921 111803746 111803833 111803837
RCU8264881 8272514 8272515 8273543 8284514
JCU105637929 105642230 105642233 105650921
HBR110642341 110650000 110653783 110655301 110659945 110667843 110668141
MESC110603555 110613960 110619505 110620815 110622267 110625014
POP18100180 7463441 7463442 7479878 7486485
PEU105115311 105130758 105137114 105137115 105142552
PALZ118045919 118048308 118052332 118060001 118060002
JRE108988497 108995854 108997102 109008959 109009407 109017562 109021248 118349603 118349731
QSU112009271 112011429 112018787 112023117 112023493 112025299
QLO115952784 115953247 115955447 115973405 115973406 115976049 115976061
TWL119988554 119989362 119991195 119998706 120005523 120013902
VVI100233012(PAL7) 100240904 100241377(PAL2) 100241575(PAL1) 100245997(PAL) 100251137 100252889 100255939(PAL4) 100256293 100263160(PAL) 100266224 100266593 100853659(PAL) 100854997
VRI117915571 117920417 117925483 117925495 117928585 117932190 117932191 117932192 117932448 117933071 117933074 117933075 117933076
SLY101243631 101243656 101243922(PAL3) 101244220(PAL5) 101246969 101247265 101249824(PAL2) 101253989 101261892 112941051
SPEN107002228 107013137 107014419 107020424 107030967 107031255 107031390 107032649
SOT102582618 102585026 102585357 102587888 102595248 102596017(PAL) 102596343 102596891 102597781 102605661 107057661
CANN107843092 107854291 107863937 107871487
NTA107761482(palB) 107769293(pal4) 107786762(TOBPAL1) 107792668(NtPAL) 107802063 107820497 107831213
NSY104212402 104218178 104230518 104241192
NTO104092690 104100767 104116279 104119303
NAU109209019 109212354 109231224 109233353
INI109148785 109148795 109148804 109148811 109181625 109187876 109192698
ITR116006484 116008405 116022516 116028398 116028538 116030458
SIND105161317 105161378 105174307
OEU111399604 111402181 111403111
EGT105955553 105956685 105961230
SSPL121748231 121748279 121787281 121792223 121795447 121799006
HAN110868345 110877696 110898342 110898343 110898344 110904470 110924687 110924718 110925465
ECAD122586736 122602813 122602814 122602815 122604858
LSV111893052 111894107 111915057 111916376 111916377
CCAV112508463 112511516 112512533 112521371 112521561
DCR108217754 108223317 108224761 108227736
CSIN114262497 114269233 114273057 114302746 114308066 114309513
BVG104898673
SOE110796050
CQI110697690 110724960
NNU104589393 104595050 104600622 104601277
MING122058157 122061512 122061513 122061804 122069916 122081057 122086992
TSS122646812 122647453 122652028 122664470
PSOM113294591 113298633 113310130 113310719 113328160 113338846
NCOL116252865 116260476 116263014 116265747 116267544
OSA4330036 4330037 4330040 4336415 4338861 4351235 4352358
DOSAOs02t0626400-01(Os02g0626400) Os02t0626600-00(Os02g0626600) Os02t0627100-01(Os02g0627100) Os04t0518400-01(Os04g0518400) Os05t0427400-00(Os05g0427400) Os12t0520200-01(Os12g0520200)
OBR102709455 102714183 102715460 102717957 102718239
BDI100829928 100840340 100841149 100841454 100843583 100844192 100845653
ATS109736056 109750201 109750202 109750206 109750207 109752036 109752043 109758771 109758772 109758784 109758790 109760444 109764463 109764464 109767405 109777317
TDC119287720 119312374 119317182 119317183 119317577 119317588 119317599 119317608 119324608 119326421 119326448 119354057 119354220 119355847 119355848 119360139 119360153 119360164 119360175 119363245 119363247 119364987 119364990 119364991 119364992 119367766
TAES123044473 123044475 123046102 123046106 123046108 123052332 123052335 123052459 123053982 123053983 123053984 123053985 123053986 123088069 123105200 123105206 123105215 123105222 123105228 123113082 123113856 123113857 123127714 123127715 123137535 123137536 123141544 123144879 123180005 123180007 123180011 123180545 123187330 123187336 123187343 123188184 123188342 123189877 123189878 123189879 123189880
TUA125513870 125513871 125528418 125528663 125536554 125536720 125539132 125539133 125539134 125539135 125539136 125539137 125544157 125544164 125544174 125549968 125550027
SBI8054283 8062467 8066166 8066167 8066169 8066170
ZMA100273579 100281042 100281532 100285115 100381820 103627433 103655990 109943525
SITA101756700 101780720 101781123 101781518 101781925
SVS117836977 117857065 117857515 117862857 117865862
PVIR120642390 120656507 120656508 120656509 120683054 120709314 120709328
PHAI112873613 112881643 112881654 112881665 112890395 112899882
PDA103703950 103708643 103708669 103718264
EGU105033424 105035781 105041875 105054501 105055673
MUS103971627 103972164 103978140 103983874 103985827 103994974 103998043 104000863
DCT110113904 110115785
PEQ110024167 110031047
AOF109826061 109836321 109836322 109836343 109848011
ATR18439368 18439369 18439372 18443160 18995827
SMOSELMODRAFT_450474(PAL1-1) SELMODRAFT_450478(PAL1-2) SELMODRAFT_450479(PAL2-1) SELMODRAFT_450480(PAL3-1) SELMODRAFT_450481(PAL4-1) SELMODRAFT_450482(PAL2-2) SELMODRAFT_450483(PAL3-2a) SELMODRAFT_450484(PAL3-2b) SELMODRAFT_450485(PAL4-2)
PPP112273833 112273834 112276937 112277636 112278877 112285521 112286715 112287672 112290398 112290843 112291346 112294398 112295966
NCRNCU09391
NTENEUTE1DRAFT85424(NEUTE1DRAFT_85424)
SMPSMAC_01196 SMAC_05651
PANPODANSg1143
TTTTHITE_2117925
CTHRCTHT_0020200
MGRMGG_10036
PPEIPpBr36_04848
SSCKSPSK_07118
FGRFGSG_09311
FPUFPSE_09706
FVRFVEG_03798 FVEG_10552
FOXFOXG_05927 FOXG_11971
NHENECHADRAFT_76812
MAWMAC_06002
MAJMAA_05249 MAA_09147
PLJVFPFJ_04036 VFPFJ_04540
VALVDBG_06765 VDBG_08166
VDAVDAG_05831 VDAG_10058
CFJCFIO01_05132 CFIO01_12530
CHIGCH63R_14109
ELAUCREL1_5223 UCREL1_6869
PFYPFICI_01582
BFUBCIN_01g10160
PSCOLY89DRAFT_585054
ANIAN6075.2
AFMAFUA_2G09110
ACTACLA_080920
NFINFIA_084640
AORAO090005000532 AO090011000788 AO090026000586 AO090701000601
ANGANI_1_1828184(An04g04370) ANI_1_2142074(An08g07740) ANI_1_738114(An13g02640)
AFVAFLA_003340 AFLA_005128 AFLA_008180
ALUCAKAW2_50697S AKAW2_51436S AKAW2_51617S
ACHEACHE_10063S
APUUAPUU_20319A
PCSPc16g03670
TMFPMAA_033480 PMAA_075540
TRGTRUGW13939_02554 TRUGW13939_04868 TRUGW13939_05485 TRUGW13939_08765 TRUGW13939_09869
UREUREG_04219
PNOSNOG_08528 SNOG_09914 SNOG_16362
PTEPTT_11854
BZECOCCADRAFT_10166
BCOMBAUCODRAFT_361906
NPAUCRNP2_2780
TASAA1Q1_00389
TVSTRAVEDRAFT_173713
DSQDICSQDRAFT_52356 DICSQDRAFT_92085
PCOPHACADRAFT_130223 PHACADRAFT_213633 PHACADRAFT_213640 PHACADRAFT_213646 PHACADRAFT_259798
SHSSTEHIDRAFT_142351 STEHIDRAFT_160287 STEHIDRAFT_61084
HIRHETIRDRAFT_423519 HETIRDRAFT_481650 HETIRDRAFT_66536
PSQPUNSTDRAFT_49445
ADLAURDEDRAFT_113627 AURDEDRAFT_115168 AURDEDRAFT_117508 AURDEDRAFT_73911
FMEFOMMEDRAFT_101488
GTRGLOTRDRAFT_42132
LBCLACBIDRAFT_184628 LACBIDRAFT_291120
MPRMPER_03924
MRRMoror_10348 Moror_6316
MOREE1B28_000528(STR11_1) E1B28_010076(STR11_2)
CCICC1G_06838 CC1G_14161
SCMSCHCODRAFT_236080 SCHCODRAFT_78229
ABPAGABI1DRAFT112726(AGABI1DRAFT_112726) AGABI1DRAFT112810(AGABI1DRAFT_112810)
ABVAGABI2DRAFT192690(PAL2) AGABI2DRAFT192776(PAL1)
PCUBJR316_0002356 JR316_0002394
CPUTCONPUDRAFT_125534
SLASERLADRAFT_416426(pal1) SERLADRAFT_418655 SERLADRAFT_447477
UMAUMAG_00078 UMAG_06509
PFPPFL1_00351
PGRPGTG_10006 PGTG_12283
MLRMELLADRAFT_44072 MELLADRAFT_49604
YENYE3021
YEPYE105_C1215
YEYY11_19441
YEWCH47_2390
YETCH48_2792
YEFFORC2_3006
YEEYE5303_34601
PLUplu2234
PLUMA4R40_11195
PAYPAU_02187
PTTVY86_19920
PLUICE143_11425
XBUHGO23_10050
ASIPAQUSIP_25040(cmdF)
LCJNCTC11976_00157(cmdF)
NCOAAW31_07190
DLIdnl_24100
METM446_0175
DVCDvina_38800
RXYRxyl_1739
GLPGlo7428_1326
NPUNpun_R2068
AVAAva_3988
ANNEH233_03570
RIVRiv7116_3074
CTHEChro_0712
SCSSta7437_0219
STANSTA3757_22250
HAUHaur_1883 Haur_2406
PBSPlabr_3153
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:14458851]
  Authors
KOUKOL J, CONN EE.
  Title
The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plans. IV. Purification and properties of the phenylalanine deaminase of Hordeum vulgare.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 236:2692-8 (1961)
Reference
2
  Authors
Young, M.R. and Neish, A.C.
  Title
Properties of the ammonia-lyases deaminating phenylalanine and related compounds in Triticum sestivum and Pteridium aquilinum.
  Journal
Phytochemistry 5:1121-1132 (1966)
Reference
3  [PMID:17185228]
  Authors
Louie GV, Bowman ME, Moffitt MC, Baiga TJ, Moore BS, Noel JP.
  Title
Structural determinants and modulation of substrate specificity in phenylalanine-tyrosine ammonia-lyases.
  Journal
Chem Biol 13:1327-38 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.11.011
Reference
4  [PMID:15350127]
  Authors
Calabrese JC, Jordan DB, Boodhoo A, Sariaslani S, Vannelli T.
  Title
Crystal structure of phenylalanine ammonia lyase: multiple helix dipoles implicated in catalysis.
  Journal
Biochemistry 43:11403-16 (2004)
DOI:10.1021/bi049053+
Reference
5  [PMID:15548745]
  Authors
Ritter H, Schulz GE
  Title
Structural basis for the entrance into the phenylpropanoid metabolism catalyzed by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase.
  Journal
Plant Cell 16:3426-36 (2004)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.104.025288
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:17185227]
  Authors
Watts KT, Mijts BN, Lee PC, Manning AJ, Schmidt-Dannert C
  Title
Discovery of a substrate selectivity switch in tyrosine ammonia-lyase, a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family.
  Journal
Chem Biol 13:1317-26 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.10.008
  Sequence
Reference
7  [PMID:7925471]
  Authors
Appert C, Logemann E, Hahlbrock K, Schmid J, Amrhein N
  Title
Structural and catalytic properties of the four phenylalanine ammonia-lyase isoenzymes from parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nym.).
  Journal
Eur J Biochem 225:491-9 (1994)
DOI:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.00491.x
  Sequence
Reference
8  [PMID:15276452]
  Authors
Cochrane FC, Davin LB, Lewis NG
  Title
The Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene family: kinetic characterization of the four PAL isoforms.
  Journal
Phytochemistry 65:1557-64 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.05.006
  Sequence
Reference
9  [PMID:10220322]
  Authors
Schwede TF, Retey J, Schulz GE
  Title
Crystal structure of histidine ammonia-lyase revealing a novel polypeptide modification as the catalytic electrophile.
  Journal
Biochemistry 38:5355-61 (1999)
DOI:10.1021/bi982929q
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 4.3.1.24
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 4.3.1.24
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 4.3.1.24
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 4.3.1.24
CAS: 9024-28-6

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