KEGG   ENZYME: 5.1.2.1
Entry
EC 5.1.2.1                  Enzyme                                 

Name
lactate racemase;
lacticoracemase;
hydroxyacid racemase;
lactic acid racemase;
larA (gene name)
Class
Isomerases;
Racemases and epimerases;
Acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives
Sysname
lactate racemase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(S)-lactate = (R)-lactate [RN:R01450]
Reaction(KEGG)
R01450
Substrate
(S)-lactate [CPD:C00186]
Product
(R)-lactate [CPD:C00256]
Comment
The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and appears to be restricted to lactic acid bacteria. It contains a unique nickel-containing cofactor, pyridinium-3-thioamide-5-thiocarboxylate mononucleotide Ni pincer complex.
History
EC 5.1.2.1 created 1961
Pathway
ec00620  Pyruvate metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K22373  lactate racemase
Genes
TCI: A7K98_01695
THIP: N838_27825
GAI: IMCC3135_06230
KUS: B9G99_09405
KMA: B9H00_05445
KUY: FY550_02760(larA)
SUTT: SUTMEG_10650
SUTK: FG381_12150(larA)
BBAY: A4V04_07910
WSU: WS0140
CGRA: CGRAC_1985
CSPF: CSF_0738
CMUC: CMCT_0037
CSHO: CSHOW_0341
SDL: Sdel_1277
SMUL: SMUL_1678
SHAL: SHALO_1633
SULJ: SJPD1_1640
SULT: FA592_00735(larA)
GSK: KN400_3236(larA)
GME: Gmet_3244(larA)
GUR: Gura_0647
GBM: Gbem_0565(larA)
GEO: Geob_0833(larA)
GEM: GM21_0578
GEB: GM18_3791
DEU: DBW_3378
DVM: DvMF_1997
DDS: Ddes_2379
DTR: RSDT_0048
DBA: Dbac_2152
DRT: Dret_2326
DOL: Dole_2523
DALK: DSCA_62740
ADE: Adeh_0469
SCL: sce8293
HOH: Hoch_6889
DBR: Deba_0774
KAI: K32_38480
SNO: Snov_3500
STAR: G3545_21865(larA)
ANC: GBB76_11570(larA)
LCK: HN018_13435(larA)
SKT: IGS68_04140(larA)
HLI: HLI_15685
SEP: SE0374
SEPP: SEB_00296
SEPS: DP17_1681
SSP: SSP0177
SPAS: STP1_1688
SCAR: DWB96_11230(larA)
SARL: SAP2_03250
PMW: B2K_00860
PPSC: EHS13_08180(larA)
LPL: lp_0104(larA)
LPJ: JDM1_0105
LPT: zj316_0313(larA)
LPZ: Lp16_0097
LFE: LAF_1733
LFR: LC40_1101
LFF: LBFF_1915
LMAL: LM596_00640(larA)
LBR: LVIS_1849
LSUA: H3M12_11165(larA)
LNN: F0161_06435(larA)
PPE: PEPE_1694
PPEN: T256_08335
PCE: PECL_1783
LSA: LCA_0784
LGM: LG542_05685(larA) LG542_08135(larA)
EGV: EGCR1_11160(larA) EGCR1_12070(larA)
ESG: EsVE80_25550(larA)
CAC: CA_C0769
CAE: SMB_G0785
CAY: CEA_G0780
CBO: CBO1006
CBV: U729_1766
CDY: F3K33_06655(larA) F3K33_12750(larA)
CFER: D4Z93_07485(larA)
CALE: FDN13_09935(larA)
SARJ: HH195_01230(larA)
ACAC: EYQ97_07915(larA)
PDC: CDIF630_01318(larA)
ROC: HF520_02155(larA) HF520_09665(larA)
STH: STH1673
SLP: Slip_1088
SALQ: SYNTR_0821
DAE: Dtox_0989
TFR: BR63_00520(larA) BR63_04385(larA) BR63_06065(larA) BR63_07955(larA) BR63_17640(larA)
HMO: HM1_1638
ELM: ELI_3629
EMT: CPZ25_007450(larA) CPZ25_018600(larA)
CTHM: CFE_0513
BPRS: CK3_17920
CHY: CHY_0066
TSH: Tsac_0232
TOC: Toce_2224
HALS: D7D81_01335(larA)
APR: Apre_1605
VPR: Vpar_0984
MEG: DKB62_09640(larA) DKB62_09710(larA)
STED: SPTER_02930(larA_1) SPTER_02940(larA_2) SPTER_29180(larA_3) SPTER_36590(larA_4) SPTER_38540(larA_5) SPTER_42080(larA_6) SPTER_47210(larA_7)
AIN: Acin_0508
SLE: sle_12250(sle_12250)
SNZ: DC008_00260(larA)
SERJ: SGUI_3207
MPH: MLP_08790
NCA: Noca_2000
NDK: I601_3706
NMES: H9L09_09285(larA)
NOW: GBF35_28965(larA)
GOB: Gobs_1559
MMAR: MODMU_4034
AMD: AMED_3084
AMN: RAM_15685
AMM: AMES_3050
AMZ: B737_3051
PDX: Psed_1167
ASE: ACPL_3390
ACTS: ACWT_3262
CAI: Caci_4917
RXY: Rxyl_2107
RUB: GBA63_00755(larA)
RCA: Rcas_2707
AHEL: Q31a_07780
TTF: THTE_0387
PLM: Plim_2304
SACI: Sinac_0264
GRW: FTO74_07765(larA)
PFER: IRI77_17200(larA)
TLI: Tlie_1863
TNA: CTN_1547
PMO: Pmob_0129
KOL: Kole_0994
ASAC: ATHSA_0239
GTL: EP073_01200(larA)
CABY: Cabys_1100
DTU: Dtur_0486
NDE: NIDE0743
MFZ: AOB57_011605(larA) AOB57_011610(larA) AOB57_011615(larA)
MBU: Mbur_0954
MMET: MCMEM_1456
MMH: Mmah_0722
MPY: Mpsy_1273
MZI: HWN40_02275(larA)
MTP: Mthe_0752
MCJ: MCON_0092
MHI: Mhar_1142
MPD: MCP_0283
MEZ: Mtc_1545
RCI: RCIX1757
HUT: Huta_0453
HTI: HTIA_0288
HME: HFX_2777
HTU: Htur_2912
SALI: L593_03130
MEAR: Mpt1_c00310(hdrD1)
MARC: AR505_0167
BARC: AOA65_1656
BARB: AOA66_1617
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:14800428]
  Authors
HUENNEKENS FM, MAHLER HR, NORDMANN J.
  Title
Studies on the cyclophorase system. XVII. The occurrence and properties of an alpha-hydroxy acid racemose.
  Journal
Arch Biochem 30:77-89 (1951)
Reference
2
  Authors
Kitahara, K., Obayashi, A. and Fukui, S.
  Title
Racemase I cell-free racemase.
  Journal
Enzymologia 15:259-266 (1953)
Reference
3  [PMID:16166538]
  Authors
Goffin P, Deghorain M, Mainardi JL, Tytgat I, Champomier-Verges MC, Kleerebezem M, Hols P
  Title
Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 187:6750-61 (2005)
DOI:10.1128/JB.187.19.6750-6761.2005
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
4  [PMID:24710389]
  Authors
Desguin B, Goffin P, Viaene E, Kleerebezem M, Martin-Diaconescu V, Maroney MJ, Declercq JP, Soumillion P, Hols P
  Title
Lactate racemase is a nickel-dependent enzyme activated by a widespread maturation system.
  Journal
Nat Commun 5:3615 (2014)
DOI:10.1038/ncomms4615
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
5  [PMID:26138974]
  Authors
Desguin B, Zhang T, Soumillion P, Hols P, Hu J, Hausinger RP
  Title
METALLOPROTEINS. A tethered niacin-derived pincer complex with a nickel-carbon bond in lactate racemase.
  Journal
Science 349:66-9 (2015)
DOI:10.1126/science.aab2272
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
6  [PMID:28374531]
  Authors
Yu MJ, Chen SL
  Title
From NAD+ to Nickel Pincer Complex: A Significant Cofactor Evolution Presented by Lactate Racemase.
  Journal
Chemistry 23:7545-7557 (2017)
DOI:10.1002/chem.201700405
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 5.1.2.1
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 5.1.2.1
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 5.1.2.1
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 5.1.2.1
CAS: 9024-05-9

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