KEGG   ENZYME: 6.3.2.11Help
Entry
EC 6.3.2.11                 Enzyme                                 

Name
carnosine synthase;
carnosine synthetase;
carnosine-anserine synthetase;
homocarnosine-carnosine synthetase;
carnosine-homocarnosine synthetase;
L-histidine:beta-alanine ligase (AMP-forming) (incorrect)
Class
Ligases;
Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;
Acid-D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases)
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
L-histidine:beta-alanine ligase (ADP-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
ATP + L-histidine + beta-alanine = ADP + phosphate + carnosine [RN:R01164]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
ATP [CPD:C00002];
L-histidine [CPD:C00135];
beta-alanine [CPD:C00099]
Product
ADP [CPD:C00008];
phosphate [CPD:C00009];
carnosine [CPD:C00386]
Comment
This enzyme was thought to form AMP [1,2], but studies with highly purified enzyme proved that it forms ADP [4]. Carnosine is a dipeptide that is present at high concentrations in skeletal muscle and the olfactory bulb of vertebrates [3]. It is also found in the skeletal muscle of some invertebrates. The enzyme can also catalyse the formation of homocarnosine from 4-aminobutanoate and L-histidine, with much lower activity [4].
History
EC 6.3.2.11 created 1965, modified 2010
Pathway
ec00330  Arginine and proline metabolism
ec00340  Histidine metabolism
ec00410  beta-Alanine metabolism
Orthology
K14755  carnosine synthase
Genes
HSA: 57571(CARNS1)
PTR: 451368(CARNS1)
PPS: 100992842(CARNS1)
GGO: 101133589(CARNS1)
PON: 100433050(CARNS1)
NLE: 100586652(CARNS1)
MCC: 712485(CARNS1)
MCF: 102140146(CARNS1)
CSAB: 103217912(CARNS1)
RRO: 104664741(CARNS1)
RBB: 108518609(CARNS1)
CJC: 100396814(CARNS1)
SBQ: 101048183(CARNS1)
MMU: 107239(Carns1)
RNO: 309150(Carns1)
CGE: 100765077(Carns1)
NGI: 103725587(Carns1)
HGL: 101703269(Carns1)
CCAN: 109688626(Carns1)
TUP: 102476516(CARNS1)
CFA: 483695(CARNS1)
AML: 100470611(CARNS1)
UMR: 103679612(CARNS1)
ORO: 101382286(CARNS1)
FCA: 101080661(CARNS1)
PTG: 102953183(CARNS1)
AJU: 106971104(CARNS1)
BTA: 783525(CARNS1)
BOM: 102288119(CARNS1)
BIU: 109554139(CARNS1)
PHD: 102339857(CARNS1)
CHX: 102182385(CARNS1)
OAS: 101109312(CARNS1)
SSC: 100512885(CARNS1)
CFR: 102506874 102520872(CARNS1)
CDK: 105104426(CARNS1)
BACU: 103008596(CARNS1)
LVE: 103080369(CARNS1)
OOR: 101285110(CARNS1)
ECB: 100059309(CARNS1)
EPZ: 103560159(CARNS1)
EAI: 106833657(CARNS1)
MYB: 102244811(CARNS1)
MYD: 102764108(CARNS1)
HAI: 109384218(CARNS1)
RSS: 109450430(CARNS1)
PALE: 102891454(CARNS1)
LAV: 100671318(CARNS1)
TMU: 101343802
MDO: 100028997(CARNS1)
SHR: 100934818(CARNS1)
GGA: 100359387(CARNS1)
MGP: 100548525(CARNS1)
CJO: 107314238(CARNS1)
FAB: 101810237(CARNS1)
PHI: 102100376(CARNS1)
PMAJ: 107205283(CARNS1)
FPG: 101914136(RPS6KB2) 106112844(CARNS1)
FCH: 102053346(CARNS1)
CLV: 102090970(CARNS1)
ASN: 102369760(CARNS1)
AMJ: 102565182(CARNS1)
PSS: 102451775(CARNS1)
CMY: 102932637(CARNS1)
CPIC: 101949086(CARNS1)
ACS: 100557340(carns1)
PVT: 110085648(CARNS1)
PBI: 103057026(CARNS1)
GJA: 107121294(CARNS1)
XLA: 108696326(carns1.L)
XTR: 100487967(carns1)
OTW: 112220780(carns1)
ELS: 105025204(carns1)
SFM: 108935907(carns1) 108937619
MNG: MNEG_7106
SMIN: v1.2.013461.t1(symbB.v1.2.013461.t1) v1.2.013473.t1(symbB.v1.2.013473.t1) v1.2.023159.t1(symbB.v1.2.023159.t1) v1.2.032723.t1(symbB.v1.2.032723.t1)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:14404206]
  Authors
KALYANKAR GD, MEISTER A.
  Title
Enzymatic synthesis of carnosine and related beta-alanyl and gamma-aminobutyryl peptides.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 234:3210-8 (1959)
Reference
2  [PMID:16748858]
  Authors
Stenesh JJ, Winnick T.
  Title
Carnosine-anserine synthetase of muscle. 4. Partial purification of the enzyme and further studies of beta-alanyl peptide synthesis.
  Journal
Biochem J 77:575-81 (1960)
Reference
3  [PMID:4988625]
  Authors
Crush KG
  Title
Carnosine and related substances in animal tissues.
  Journal
Comp Biochem Physiol 34:3-30 (1970)
Reference
4  [PMID:20097752]
  Authors
Drozak J, Veiga-da-Cunha M, Vertommen D, Stroobant V, Van Schaftingen E
  Title
Molecular identification of carnosine synthase as ATP-grasp domain-containing protein 1 (ATPGD1).
  Journal
J Biol Chem 285:9346-56 (2010)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.095505
  Sequence
[gga:100359387] [hsa:57571] [mmu:107239]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 6.3.2.11
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 6.3.2.11
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 6.3.2.11
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 6.3.2.11
CAS: 9023-61-4

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