KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04020
hsa04020                    Pathway                                
Calcium signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
Ca2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this external source of signal Ca2+ by activating various entry channels with widely different properties. The voltage-operated channels (VOCs) are found in excitable cells and generate the rapid Ca2+ fluxes that control fast cellular processes. There are many other Ca2+-entry channels, such as the receptor-operated channels (ROCs), for example the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) that respond to glutamate. There also are second-messenger-operated channels (SMOCs) and store-operated channels (SOCs).
The other principal source of Ca2+ for signalling is the internal stores that are located primarily in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), in which inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) or ryanodine receptors (RYRs) regulate the release of Ca2+. The principal activator of these channels is Ca2+ itself and this process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is central to the mechanism of Ca2+ signalling. Various second messengers or modulators also control the release of Ca2+. IP3, which is generated by pathways using different isoforms of phospholipase C (PLCbeta, delta, epsilon, gamma and zeta), regulates the IP3Rs. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) releases Ca2+ via RYRs. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) may activate a distinct Ca2+ release mechanism on separate acidic Ca2+ stores. Ca2+ release via the NAADP-sensitive mechanism may also feedback onto either RYRs or IP3Rs. cADPR and NAADP are generated by CD38. This enzyme might be sensitive to the cellular metabolism, as ATP and NADH inhibit it.
The influx of Ca2+ from the environment or release from internal stores causes a very rapid and dramatic increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which has been widely exploited for signal transduction. Some proteins, such as troponin C (TnC) involved in muscle contraction, directly bind to and sense Ca2+. However, in other cases Ca2+ is sensed through intermediate calcium sensors such as calmodulin (CALM).
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
Pathway map
hsa04020  Calcium signaling pathway

nt06161  Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)
nt06164  Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)
nt06167  Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
nt06183  Yersinia
nt06220  Calcium signaling (cancer)
nt06263  Hepatocellular carcinoma
nt06266  Non-small cell lung cancer
nt06273  Glioma
nt06460  Alzheimer disease
nt06466  Pathways of neurodegeneration
nt06528  Calcium signaling
nt06537  TCR/BCR signaling
N00023  EGF-EGFR-PLCG-ERK signaling pathway
N00026  EGF-EGFR-PLCG-CAMK signaling pathway
N00028  PDGF-PDGFR-PLCG-CAMK signaling pathway
N00147  EGF-EGFR-PLCG-calcineurin signaling pathway
N00227  TGFA-EGFR-PLCG-PKC signaling pathway
N00401  CXCR4-GNAQ-PLCB/G-calcineurin signaling pathway
N01000  mAChR-Ca2+ -apoptotic pathway
N01106  TCR-PLCG-ITPR signaling pathway
N01429  Cytosolic Ca2+ removal, PMCA
N01637  Ca2+ entry, Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel
N01638  Skeletal-type VGCC-RYR signaling
N01639  Cardiac-type VGCC-RYR signaling
N01640  GPCR-PLCB-ITPR signaling pathway
N01641  RTK-PLCG-ITPR signaling pathway
N01642  Ca2+ entry, Ligand-gated Ca2+ channel
N01643  Ca2+ entry, Store-operated Ca2+ channel
N01644  Lysosomal Ca2+ release
N01645  Cytosolic Ca2+ removal, SERCA
N01646  Regulation of SERCA
N01647  Ca2+/CAM-CN signaling pathway
N01648  Ca2+/CAM-CAMK signaling pathway
N01655  Ca2+-PLCD-ITPR signaling pathway
N01741  Ca2+/TRPC3 signaling pathway
D00059  Levodopa (JP18/USP/INN)
D00076  Noradrenaline (JP18)
D00081  Dinoprost (JP18/USAN/INN)
D00095  Epinephrine (USP/INN)
D00101  Vasopressin (JP18/USP)
D00113  Atropine (USP)
D00124  Ephedrine (USP)
D00147  Hyoscyamine (USP)
D00150  Angiotensin II (INN)
D00176  Protirelin (JP18/USAN/INN)
D00180  Alprostadil (JP18/USP/INN)
D00193  Dexpanthenol (USP/INN)
D00227  Aminophylline (USP/INN)
D00255  Carvedilol (JP18/USP/INN)
D00274  Cisapride (USP/INN)
D00295  Cimetidine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00300  Diphenhydramine (JP18/INN)
D00304  Divalproex sodium (USP)
D00318  Famotidine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00319  Felodipine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00349  Isradipine (USP/INN)
D00356  Latanoprost (JAN/USP/INN)
D00366  Lypressin (USAN/INN)
D00371  Theophylline (JP18)
D00378  Timolol (USAN)
D00397  Tropicamide (JP18/USP/INN)
D00399  Valproic acid (USP)
D00404  Methsuximide (USP)
D00411  Zafirlukast (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00422  Ranitidine (USAN/INN)
D00432  Nadolol (JP18/USP/INN)
D00437  Nifedipine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00438  Nimodipine (USP/INN)
D00440  Nizatidine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00465  Oxybutynin (USAN/INN)
D00480  Promethazine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00481  Propantheline bromide (JP18/USP/INN)
D00494  Promethazine (JAN/INN)
D00495  Paramethadione (INN)
D00511  Phenylephrine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00520  Dimenhydrinate (JP18/USP/INN)
D00528  Caffeine (USP)
D00529  Montelukast sodium (JP18/USP)
D00537  Topiramate (JAN/USP/INN)
D00538  Zonisamide (JP18/USP/INN)
D00539  Ethosuximide (JP18/USP/INN)
D00540  Glycopyrrolate (USP)
D00598  Betaxolol hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00599  Carteolol hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00600  Labetalol hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00602  Penbutolol sulfate (JP18/USP)
D00603  Timolol maleate (JP18/USP)
D00607  Guanadrel sulfate (USAN)
D00613  Fenoldopam mesylate (USP)
D00615  Amlodipine besylate (USP)
D00617  Nicardipine hydrochloride (JP18/USAN)
D00618  Nisoldipine (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00619  Verapamil hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00629  Nitrendipine (JP18/USAN/INN)
D00631  Bepridil hydrochloride (USAN)
D00632  Dobutamine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00633  Dopamine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00634  Bisoprolol fumarate (JP18/USP)
D00636  Amiodarone hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00646  Tolterodine (USAN/INN)
D00659  Azelastine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00666  Clemastine fumarate (JP18/USP)
D00669  Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00672  Hydroxyzine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00673  Ranitidine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00679  Ergotamine tartrate (JP18/USP)
D00680  Methylergonovine maleate (USP)
D00682  Carboprost tromethamine (USP)
D00683  Albuterol sulfate (USP)
D00684  Bitolterol mesylate (USAN)
D00685  Metaproterenol sulfate (USP)
D00686  Pirbuterol acetate (USAN)
D00687  Salmeterol xinafoate (JAN/USP)
D00688  Terbutaline sulfate (JP18/USP)
D00710  Valproate sodium (USAN)
D00711  Ketamine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00717  Dicyclomine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D00719  Hyoscyamine sulfate (USP)
D00720  Mepenzolate bromide (JP18/INN)
D00721  Methanthelinium bromide (INN)
D00722  Oxybutynin chloride (USP)
D00723  Tridihexethyl chloride (BAN)
D00774  Orphenadrine citrate (USP)
D00996  Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D00999  Acetylcholine chloride (JP18/USP/INN)
D01003  Hexocyclium metilsulfate (INN)
D01005  Isopropamide iodide (JAN/USP/INN)
D01007  Propiverine hydrochloride (JP18)
D01019  Metaraminol bitartrate (JAN/USP)
D01020  Methoxamine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01025  Levobunolol hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01026  Sotalol hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01077  Methylatropine nitrate (USAN)
D01096  Hydroxyzine pamoate (JP18/USP)
D01104  Barnidipine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01128  Ramatroban (JAN/INN)
D01131  Lafutidine (JP18/INN)
D01143  Isothipendyl hydrochloride (JAN)
D01145  Azelnidipine (JP18/INN)
D01148  Tolterodine tartrate (JAN/USP)
D01151  Lemildipine (JAN/INN)
D01163  Ergonovine maleate (USP)
D01165  Piperidolate hydrochloride (JAN)
D01171  Monatepil maleate (JAN/USAN)
D01173  Cilnidipine (JP18/INN)
D01174  Pheniramine maleate (JAN/USP)
D01175  Carpronium chloride (JAN/INN)
D01192  Olopatadine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D01201  Tiemonium iodide (JAN/INN)
D01238  Bucladesine sodium (JAN)
D01242  Promethazine teoclate (JAN/INN)
D01263  Ritodrine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D01269  Solifenacin succinate (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01295  Cinnarizine (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01297  Pirenzepine hydrochloride (USAN)
D01303  Flunarizine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01307  Midodrine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01324  Mequitazine (JP18/INN)
D01343  Dimethindene maleate (USAN)
D01347  Tramazoline hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01349  Pirbuterol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01352  Dinoprost tromethamine (JAN/USP)
D01360  Clenbuterol hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01362  Tulobuterol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01369  Bevantolol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01373  Formoterol fumarate (USP)
D01377  Prifinium bromide (JAN/INN)
D01386  Ephedrine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D01390  Isoproterenol hydrochloride (USP)
D01428  Fenoterol hydrobromide (JAN)
D01444  Bunitrolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01451  Scopolamine butylbromide (JP18)
D01452  Isopropyl unoprostone (JAN)
D01453  Caffeine hydrate (JP18)
D01454  Bupranolol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01467  Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (JP18/USAN)
D01469  Amosulalol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01491  Butropium bromide (JP18/INN)
D01504  Bufetolol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01512  Befunolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01538  Valethamate bromide (JAN)
D01553  Manidipine hydrochloride (JP18)
D01562  Aranidipine (JAN/INN)
D01573  Etilefrine hydrochloride (JP18)
D01589  Mabuterol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01592  Betahistine mesilate (JP18)
D01604  Efonidipine hydrochloride ethanolate (JAN)
D01635  Methoxyphenamine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01648  Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN)
D01654  Bepotastine besylate (USAN)
D01674  Naftopidil (JP18/INN)
D01691  Nipradilol (JAN/INN)
D01697  Colforsin daropate hydrochloride (JAN)
D01712  Theophylline sodium acetate (JAN)
D01717  Levocabastine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01771  Proxyphylline (JAN/INN)
D01794  Bopindolol malonate (JAN)
D01801  Thonzylamine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01830  Arotinolol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01835  Clorprenaline hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01849  Lercanidipine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01869  Ornoprostil (JAN/INN)
D01887  Bunazosin hydrochloride (JP18)
D01902  Fonazine mesylate (USAN)
D01908  Nilvadipine (JP18/USAN/INN)
D01922  Pratosartan (JAN/INN)
D01925  Taltirelin hydrate (JP18)
D01929  Tiotropium bromide hydrate (JAN)
D01933  Vatanidipine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01946  Oxitropium bromide (JAN/INN)
D01955  Aclatonium napadisilate (JAN)
D01958  Indenolol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01964  Travoprost (JAN/USP/INN)
D01969  Gallopamil hydrochloride (JAN)
D01976  N-Methylscopolamine methylsulfate (JAN)
D01978  Trimetoquinol hydrochloride
D02007  Protirelin tartrate hydrate (JP18)
D02014  Angiotensin II (USAN)
D02017  Oxtriphylline (USP)
D02045  Benidipine hydrochloride (JP18)
D02066  Isoproterenol sulfate (USP)
D02069  Atropine sulfate (JP18/USP)
D02073  Gemeprost (JAN/USAN/INN)
D02081  Metipranolol hydrochloride
D02091  Tripelennamine hydrochloride (USP)
D02092  Cisapride (JAN)
D02093  Isoetharine hydrochloride (USP)
D02109  dl-Methylephedrine hydrochloride (JP18)
D02147  Albuterol (USP)
D02149  Epinephrine bitartrate (JAN/USP)
D02150  l-Isoprenaline hydrochloride (JP18)
D02151  Tulobuterol (JP18/INN)
D02218  Papaverine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D02281  Levalbuterol hydrochloride (USP)
D02342  Bisoprolol (JAN/USAN/INN)
D02343  Carboprost (USAN/INN)
D02356  Verapamil (USAN/INN)
D02359  Ritodrine (USAN/INN)
D02363  Ketanserin (USAN/INN)
D02372  Perospirone hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D02374  Metipranolol (USAN/INN)
D02384  Verlukast (USAN/INN)
D02389  Primidolol (USAN/INN)
D02396  Hexoprenaline sulfate (USAN)
D02404  Procaterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D02419  Diphenhydramine salicylate (JAN)
D02535  Timepidium bromide hydrate (JP18)
D02537  Dronedarone (INN)
D02577  Flibanserin (USAN/INN)
D02599  Orphenadrine hydrochloride
D02614  Denopamine (JAN/INN)
D02630  Penfluridol (USAN/INN)
D02633  Lomerizine hydrochloride (JAN)
D02641  Butaclamol hydrochloride (USAN)
D02702  Talibegron hydrochloride (USAN)
D02705  Alprostadil alfadex (JP18)
D02719  Rosaprostol (INN)
D02722  Limaprost (INN)
D02724  Bimatoprost (JAN/USAN/INN)
D02732  Pranlukast hydrate (JP18)
D02765  Adaprolol maleate (USAN)
D02767  Adatanserin hydrochloride (USAN)
D02834  Alprenoxime hydrochloride (USAN)
D02860  Limaprost alfadex (JP18)
D02910  Amiodarone (USAN/INN)
D02914  Amlodipine maleate (USAN)
D02939  Angiotensin amide (USAN)
D02950  Antazoline phosphate (USP)
D02976  Arbutamine hydrochloride (USAN)
D02981  Arformoterol tartrate (USAN)
D02983  Argipressin tannate (USAN)
D03008  Atosiban (USAN/INN)
D03067  Belfosdil (USAN/INN)
D03088  Benzilonium bromide (USAN/INN)
D03102  Betahistine hydrochloride (USP)
D03195  Butopamine (USAN/INN)
D03198  Butoxamine hydrochloride (USAN)
D03285  Diphenhydramine tannate (JP18)
D03290  Promethazine methylenedisalicylate (JAN)
D03350  Canertinib dihydrochloride (USAN)
D03360  Diphenhydramine laurylsulfate (JAN)
D03399  Carboprost methyl (USAN)
D03402  Carbuterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03415  Carvedilol phosphate (USAN)
D03478  Choriogonadotropin alfa (USAN/INN)
D03503  Cimetidine hydrochloride (USP)
D03535  Clemastine (USAN)
D03536  Clentiazem maleate (JAN/USAN)
D03584  Colforsin (USAN/INN)
D03654  Darifenacin (USAN/INN)
D03655  Darodipine (USAN/INN)
D03729  Dexpropranolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03814  Atropine methylbromide (JAN)
D03854  Diphenhydramine citrate (USP)
D03879  Dobutamine (USAN/INN)
D03880  Dobutamine lactobionate (USAN)
D03881  Dobutamine tartrate (USAN)
D03914  Dronedarone hydrochloride (USP)
D04018  Ephedrine sulfate (USP)
D04057  Esoxybutynin chloride (USAN)
D04072  Etafedrine hydrochloride (USAN)
D04074  Etalocib (USAN)
D04157  Fenoterol (USAN/INN)
D04193  Flordipine (USAN/INN)
D04479  Hyoscyamine hydrobromide (USP)
D04488  Ibopamine (USAN/INN)
D04625  Isoetharine (USP)
D04626  Isoetharine mesylate (USP)
D04657  Lacidipine (USAN/INN)
D04701  Levalbuterol sulfate (USAN)
D04703  Levalbuterol tartrate (USAN)
D04708  Levdobutamine lactobionate (USAN)
D04710  Levobetaxolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D04868  Mebeverine hydrochloride (USAN)
D04970  Methacholine chloride (JAN/USP/INN)
D05024  Mibefradil dihydrochloride (USAN)
D05037  Trimetoquinol hydrochloride hydrate (JP18)
D05206  Norepinephrine bitartrate (USP)
D05276  Pirenzepine hydrochloride hydrate (JP18)
D05277  Formoterol fumarate hydrate (JP18)
D05345  Pamatolol sulfate (USAN)
D05366  Procaterol hydrochloride hydrate (JP18)
D05399  Pelitinib (USAN/INN)
D05429  Aminophylline hydrate (JP18)
D05442  Perhexiline maleate (USAN)
D05479  Pimagedine hydrochloride (USAN)
D05660  Pyrilamine maleate (USP)
D05699  Ranitidine bismuth citrate (USAN)
D05714  Remacemide hydrochloride (USAN)
D05718  Reproterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D05727  Ridogrel (USAN/INN)
D05792  Salmeterol (USAN/INN)
D06103  Theophylline (USP)
D06104  Theophylline sodium glycinate (USP)
D06129  Tiapamil hydrochloride (USAN)
D06246  Tripelennamine citrate
D06274  Tafluprost (JAN/USAN/INN)
D06363  Ziconotide (USAN/INN)
D06633  Pruvanserin hydrochloride (USAN)
D06672  Terlipressin (USAN/INN)
D06877  Oxyphenonium bromide (INN)
D07072  Niperotidine (INN)
D07078  Rociverine (INN)
D07079  Difemerine (INN)
D07083  Otilonium bromide (INN)
D07089  Moxaverine (INN)
D07094  Pinaverium bromide (INN)
D07097  Isometheptene mucate (USP)
D07099  Cimetropium bromide (JAN/INN)
D07181  Mepindolol (INN)
D07183  Cloranolol (INN)
D07185  Fendiline (INN)
D07194  Thenalidine (INN)
D07195  Chloropyramine (INN)
D07196  Tolpropamine (INN)
D07197  Bamipine (INN)
D07198  Chlorphenoxamine (INN)
D07226  Fesoterodine (INN)
D07227  Ornipressin (INN)
D07377  Bambuterol (INN)
D07425  Papaverine (BAN)
D07439  Papaverine sulfate
D07450  Amlodipine (USP/INN)
D07451  Amosulalol (INN)
D07458  Antazoline (INN)
D07459  Antazoline hydrochloride
D07463  Arformoterol (INN)
D07465  Arotinolol (INN)
D07475  Atosiban acetate
D07477  Atropine oxide (INN)
D07483  Azelastine (INN)
D07489  Bambuterol hydrochloride
D07492  Bamipine dihydrochloride
D07493  Bamipine lactate
D07494  Barnidipine (INN)
D07496  Befunolol (INN)
D07509  Benidipine (INN)
D07520  Bepridil (INN)
D07522  Betahistine (INN)
D07526  Betaxolol (INN)
D07534  Bitolterol (INN)
D07537  Bopindolol (INN)
D07546  Bucladesine (INN)
D07550  Bunazosin (INN)
D07590  Bupranolol (INN)
D07603  Caffeine citrate (USP)
D07624  Carteolol (INN)
D07679  Chloropyramine hydrochloride
D07684  Chlorphenoxamine hydrochloride
D07713  Clenbuterol (INN)
D07734  Cinnarizine dihydrochloride
D07820  Dicycloverine (INN)
D07853  Dimetindene (INN)
D07854  Dimetotiazine (INN)
D07870  Dopamine (INN)
D07886  Efonidipine (INN)
D07905  Ergometrine (INN)
D07906  Ergotamine (INN)
D07931  Etilefrine (INN)
D07943  Fendiline hydrochloride
D07946  Fenoldopam (INN)
D07951  Fentonium bromide (INN)
D07971  Flunarizine (INN)
D07990  Formoterol (INN)
D08009  Gallopamil (INN)
D08039  Hexoprenaline (INN)
D08040  Histamine (DCF)
D08054  Hydroxyzine (INN)
D08057  Ibopamine hydrochloride
D08074  Penbutolol (INN)
D08078  Indenolol (INN)
D08090  Isoprenaline (INN)
D08091  Isothipendyl (INN)
D08098  Ketamine (INN)
D08099  Ketanserin tartrate
D08106  Labetalol (INN)
D08111  Lercanidipine (INN)
D08115  Levobunolol (INN)
D08117  Levocabastine (INN)
D08124  Levosalbutamol (INN)
D08155  Manidipine (INN)
D08160  Mebeverine (INN)
D08183  Mepyramine (INN)
D08192  Metaraminol (INN)
D08201  Methoxamine (BAN)
D08207  Methylergometrine (INN)
D08217  Mibefradil (INN)
D08220  Midodrine (INN)
D08229  Montelukast (INN)
D08236  Mosapride (INN)
D08238  Moxaverine hydrochloride
D08270  Nicardipine (INN)
D08284  Norepinephrine hydrochoride
D08293  Olopatadine (INN)
D08300  Orciprenaline (INN)
D08305  Orphenadrine (INN)
D08340  Perhexiline (INN)
D08355  Pheniramine (INN)
D08365  Phenylephrine (INN)
D08366  Phenylephrine tartrate
D08382  Piperidolate (INN)
D08387  Pirbuterol (INN)
D08389  Pirenzepine (INN)
D08408  Pranlukast (INN)
D08424  Procaterol (INN)
D08432  Promethazine maleate
D08441  Propiverine (INN)
D08474  Reproterol (INN)
D08494  Roxatidine (INN)
D08495  Roxatidine acetate (BAN)
D08508  Sarpogrelate (INN)
D08522  Solifenacin (INN)
D08525  Sotalol (INN)
D08570  Terbutaline (INN)
D08571  Terlipressin acetate (JAN)
D08587  Thonzylamine (INN)
D08591  Tiaprost (INN)
D08595  Tiemonium methylsulfate
D08598  Tilisolol (INN)
D08600  Timolol (INN)
D08624  Tramazoline (INN)
D08629  Tretoquinol (INN)
D08645  Tripelennamine (INN)
D08661  Unoprostone (INN)
D08667  Calcium valproate
D08686  Ziconotide acetate
D08768  Promethazine hibenzate
D08837  Aclidinium bromide (JAN/USAN/INN)
D08864  Azilsartan (JAN/USAN/INN)
D08892  Clevidipine (USAN/INN)
D08923  Fesoterodine fumarate (JAN/USAN)
D08937  Labradimil (INN/USAN)
D08941  Levamlodipine malate (USAN)
D08945  Milveterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D08966  Phenylephrine bitartrate (USP)
D08986  Retosiban (USAN)
D09003  Sonedenoson (USAN)
D09318  Indacaterol (USAN/INN)
D09319  Indacaterol maleate (JAN/USAN)
D09402  Darotropium bromide (USAN/INN)
D09535  Mirabegron (JAN/USAN/INN)
D09645  Nelotanserin (USAN/INN)
D09693  Velusetrag (USAN/INN)
D09694  Velusetrag hydrochloride (USAN)
D09696  Vilanterol (USAN/INN)
D09697  Vilanterol trifenatate (JAN/USAN)
D09705  Bepotastine (USAN/INN)
D09732  Ritobegron ethyl hydrochloride (JAN)
D09752  Carpronium chloride hydrate (JAN)
D09765  Vorapaxar (USAN/INN)
D09766  Vorapaxar sulfate (JAN/USAN)
D09774  Imitrodast sodium (JAN)
D09784  Garomefrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D09789  Kirenidipine hydrochloride (JAN)
D09794  Norepinephrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D09797  Cargutocin (INN/JAN)
D09820  Vasopressin tannate (JAN)
D09822  Theosalicin (JAN)
D09866  Atopaxar (USAN)
D09867  Atopaxar hydrobromide (USAN)
D09883  Dacomitinib (INN)
D09933  Naronapride (USAN/INN)
D09934  Naronapride dihydrochloride (USAN)
D09976  Temanogrel (USAN/INN)
D09977  Temanogrel hydrochloride (USAN)
D10006  Eplivanserin (USAN/INN)
D10020  Olodaterol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D10099  Cerlapirdine (USAN)
D10100  Cerlapirdine hydrochloride (USAN)
D10117  Epelsiban (USAN)
D10118  Epelsiban besylate (USAN)
D10145  Olodaterol (USAN/INN)
D10180  Umeclidinium (USAN)
D10181  Umeclidinium bromide (JAN/USAN)
D10219  Abediterol (USAN/INN)
D10220  Abediterol napadisylate (USAN)
D10514  Dacomitinib (USAN)
D10545  Batefenterol (USAN)
D10546  Batefenterol succinate (USAN)
D10853  Desfesoterodine (INN)
D10932  Etripamil (USAN/INN)
D11009  Indacaterol acetate (JAN)
D11102  Tamolarizine hydrochloride (JAN)
D11142  Angiotensin II acetate (USAN)
D11363  Reldesemtiv (USAN)
D11630  Aminophylline dihydrate
D11723  Levamlodipine maleate (USAN)
D11776  Sparsentan (USAN/INN)
D11881  Amlodipine benzoate
D11900  Navafenterol (USAN)
D11901  Navafenterol saccharinate (USAN)
D11976  Fezolinetant (USAN)
D12061  Suvecaltamide (USAN)
D12062  Suvecaltamide hydrocloride (USAN)
D12123  Elinzanetant (USAN/INN)
D12157  Felcisetrag (USAN/INN)
D12599  Bimatoprost grenod (USAN)
Other DBs
GO: 0019722
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
6546  SLC8A1; solute carrier family 8 member A1 [KO:K05849]
6543  SLC8A2; solute carrier family 8 member A2 [KO:K05849]
6547  SLC8A3; solute carrier family 8 member A3 [KO:K05849]
490  ATP2B1; ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 1 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
492  ATP2B3; ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 3 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
493  ATP2B4; ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 4 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
491  ATP2B2; ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 2 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
1128  CHRM1; cholinergic receptor muscarinic 1 [KO:K04129]
1131  CHRM3; cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 [KO:K04131]
1133  CHRM5; cholinergic receptor muscarinic 5 [KO:K04133]
135  ADORA2A; adenosine A2a receptor [KO:K04266]
136  ADORA2B; adenosine A2b receptor [KO:K04267]
153  ADRB1; adrenoceptor beta 1 [KO:K04141]
154  ADRB2; adrenoceptor beta 2 [KO:K04142]
155  ADRB3; adrenoceptor beta 3 [KO:K04143]
1812  DRD1; dopamine receptor D1 [KO:K04144]
1816  DRD5; dopamine receptor D5 [KO:K05840]
3274  HRH2; histamine receptor H2 [KO:K04150]
3360  HTR4; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 [KO:K04160]
3361  HTR5A; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5A [KO:K04161]
3362  HTR6; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 [KO:K04162]
3363  HTR7; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 [KO:K04163]
2778  GNAS; GNAS complex locus [KO:K04632]
2774  GNAL; G protein subunit alpha L [KO:K04633]
107  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:]
108  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:]
109  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:]
196883  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:]
113  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:]
114  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:]
115  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5350  PLN; phospholamban [KO:K05852]
6588  SLN; sarcolipin [KO:K22642]
100507027  MRLN; myoregulin [KO:K22643]
401152  C4orf3; chromosome 4 open reading frame 3 [KO:K26467]
100130933  SMIM6; small integral membrane protein 6 [KO:K26468]
487  ATP2A1; ATPase sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting 1 [KO:K05853] [EC:]
489  ATP2A3; ATPase sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting 3 [KO:K05853] [EC:]
488  ATP2A2; ATPase sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting 2 [KO:K05853] [EC:]
3270  HRC; histidine rich calcium binding protein [KO:K23450]
6786  STIM1; stromal interaction molecule 1 [KO:K16059]
57620  STIM2; stromal interaction molecule 2 [KO:K18196]
84876  ORAI1; ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 [KO:K16056]
80228  ORAI2; ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 2 [KO:K16057]
93129  ORAI3; ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3 [KO:K16058]
775  CACNA1C; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C [KO:K04850]
776  CACNA1D; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D [KO:K04851]
778  CACNA1F; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 F [KO:K04853]
779  CACNA1S; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 S [KO:K04857]
773  CACNA1A; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 A [KO:K04344]
774  CACNA1B; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 B [KO:K04849]
777  CACNA1E; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 E [KO:K04852]
8913  CACNA1G; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G [KO:K04854]
8912  CACNA1H; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 H [KO:K04855]
8911  CACNA1I; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 I [KO:K04856]
1139  CHRNA7; cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit [KO:K04809]
2902  GRIN1; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 [KO:K05208]
2903  GRIN2A; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A [KO:K05209]
2904  GRIN2B; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B [KO:K05210]
2905  GRIN2C; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2C [KO:K05211]
2906  GRIN2D; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2D [KO:K05212]
116443  GRIN3A; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 3A [KO:K05213]
116444  GRIN3B; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 3B [KO:K05214]
5023  P2RX1; purinergic receptor P2X 1 [KO:K05215]
22953  P2RX2; purinergic receptor P2X 2 [KO:K05216]
5024  P2RX3; purinergic receptor P2X 3 [KO:K05217]
5025  P2RX4; purinergic receptor P2X 4 [KO:K05218]
5026  P2RX5; purinergic receptor P2X 5 [KO:K05219]
9127  P2RX6; purinergic receptor P2X 6 [KO:K05221]
5027  P2RX7; purinergic receptor P2X 7 [KO:K05220]
6261  RYR1; ryanodine receptor 1 [KO:K04961]
6262  RYR2; ryanodine receptor 2 [KO:K04962]
6263  RYR3; ryanodine receptor 3 [KO:K04963]
10345  TRDN; triadin [KO:K23449]
844  CASQ1; calsequestrin 1 [KO:K23468]
845  CASQ2; calsequestrin 2 [KO:K23445]
444  ASPH; aspartate beta-hydroxylase [KO:K00476] [EC:]
10800  CYSLTR1; cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 [KO:K04322]
57105  CYSLTR2; cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 [KO:K04323]
1129  CHRM2; cholinergic receptor muscarinic 2 [KO:K04130]
148  ADRA1A; adrenoceptor alpha 1A [KO:K04135]
147  ADRA1B; adrenoceptor alpha 1B [KO:K04136]
146  ADRA1D; adrenoceptor alpha 1D [KO:K04137]
185  AGTR1; angiotensin II receptor type 1 [KO:K04166]
1909  EDNRA; endothelin receptor type A [KO:K04197]
1910  EDNRB; endothelin receptor type B [KO:K04198]
2149  F2R; coagulation factor II thrombin receptor [KO:K03914]
2911  GRM1; glutamate metabotropic receptor 1 [KO:K04603]
2915  GRM5; glutamate metabotropic receptor 5 [KO:K04604]
2925  GRPR; gastrin releasing peptide receptor [KO:K04169]
3269  HRH1; histamine receptor H1 [KO:K04149]
3356  HTR2A; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A [KO:K04157]
3357  HTR2B; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B [KO:K04157]
3358  HTR2C; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C [KO:K04157]
3973  LHCGR; luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor [KO:K04248]
4923  NTSR1; neurotensin receptor 1 [KO:K04211]
5021  OXTR; oxytocin receptor [KO:K04229]
552  AVPR1A; arginine vasopressin receptor 1A [KO:K04226]
553  AVPR1B; arginine vasopressin receptor 1B [KO:K04227]
56413  LTB4R2; leukotriene B4 receptor 2 [KO:K04297]
5724  PTAFR; platelet activating factor receptor [KO:K04279]
5731  PTGER1; prostaglandin E receptor 1 [KO:K04258]
5733  PTGER3; prostaglandin E receptor 3 [KO:K04260]
5737  PTGFR; prostaglandin F receptor [KO:K04262]
623  BDKRB1; bradykinin receptor B1 [KO:K03915]
624  BDKRB2; bradykinin receptor B2 [KO:K03916]
6869  TACR1; tachykinin receptor 1 [KO:K04222]
6865  TACR2; tachykinin receptor 2 [KO:K04223]
6870  TACR3; tachykinin receptor 3 [KO:K04224]
6915  TBXA2R; thromboxane A2 receptor [KO:K04264]
7201  TRHR; thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor [KO:K04282]
886  CCKAR; cholecystokinin A receptor [KO:K04194]
887  CCKBR; cholecystokinin B receptor [KO:K04195]
7852  CXCR4; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [KO:K04189]
2776  GNAQ; G protein subunit alpha q [KO:K04634]
2767  GNA11; G protein subunit alpha 11 [KO:K04635]
9630  GNA14; G protein subunit alpha 14 [KO:K04636]
2769  GNA15; G protein subunit alpha 15 [KO:K04637]
1950  EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
7039  TGFA; transforming growth factor alpha [KO:K08774]
5154  PDGFA; platelet derived growth factor subunit A [KO:K04359]
5155  PDGFB; platelet derived growth factor subunit B [KO:K17386]
56034  PDGFC; platelet derived growth factor C [KO:K05450]
80310  PDGFD; platelet derived growth factor D [KO:K05450]
2246  FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 [KO:K18496]
2247  FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 [KO:K18497]
2248  FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3 [KO:K04358]
2249  FGF4; fibroblast growth factor 4 [KO:K04358]
8822  FGF17; fibroblast growth factor 17 [KO:K04358]
2251  FGF6; fibroblast growth factor 6 [KO:K04358]
2252  FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7 [KO:K04358]
2253  FGF8; fibroblast growth factor 8 [KO:K04358]
2254  FGF9; fibroblast growth factor 9 [KO:K04358]
2255  FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10 [KO:K04358]
8823  FGF16; fibroblast growth factor 16 [KO:K04358]
2250  FGF5; fibroblast growth factor 5 [KO:K04358]
8817  FGF18; fibroblast growth factor 18 [KO:K04358]
26281  FGF20; fibroblast growth factor 20 [KO:K04358]
27006  FGF22; fibroblast growth factor 22 [KO:K04358]
9965  FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19 [KO:K22603]
26291  FGF21; fibroblast growth factor 21 [KO:K22429]
8074  FGF23; fibroblast growth factor 23 [KO:K22428]
7422  VEGFA; vascular endothelial growth factor A [KO:K05448]
7423  VEGFB; vascular endothelial growth factor B [KO:K16858]
7424  VEGFC; vascular endothelial growth factor C [KO:K05449]
2277  VEGFD; vascular endothelial growth factor D [KO:K05449]
4803  NGF; nerve growth factor [KO:K02582]
3082  HGF; hepatocyte growth factor [KO:K05460]
4485  MST1; macrophage stimulating 1 [KO:K23441]
2668  GDNF; glial cell derived neurotrophic factor [KO:K05452]
1956  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:]
2064  ERBB2; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05083] [EC:]
2065  ERBB3; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 [KO:K05084] [EC:]
2066  ERBB4; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [KO:K05085] [EC:]
5156  PDGFRA; platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha [KO:K04363] [EC:]
5159  PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta [KO:K05089] [EC:]
2260  FGFR1; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [KO:K04362] [EC:]
2263  FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [KO:K05093] [EC:]
2261  FGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [KO:K05094] [EC:]
2264  FGFR4; fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 [KO:K05095] [EC:]
2321  FLT1; fms related receptor tyrosine kinase 1 [KO:K05096] [EC:]
2324  FLT4; fms related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [KO:K05097] [EC:]
3791  KDR; kinase insert domain receptor [KO:K05098] [EC:]
4914  NTRK1; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 [KO:K03176] [EC:]
4915  NTRK2; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K04360] [EC:]
4916  NTRK3; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 3 [KO:K05101] [EC:]
4233  MET; MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05099] [EC:]
4486  MST1R; macrophage stimulating 1 receptor [KO:K05100] [EC:]
5979  RET; ret proto-oncogene [KO:K05126] [EC:]
102723407  IGH; immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-38-2-like [KO:K06856]
5333  PLCD1; phospholipase C delta 1 [KO:K05857] [EC:]
113026  PLCD3; phospholipase C delta 3 [KO:K05857] [EC:]
84812  PLCD4; phospholipase C delta 4 [KO:K05857] [EC:]
23236  PLCB1; phospholipase C beta 1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5330  PLCB2; phospholipase C beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5331  PLCB3; phospholipase C beta 3 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5332  PLCB4; phospholipase C beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5335  PLCG1; phospholipase C gamma 1 [KO:K01116] [EC:]
5336  PLCG2; phospholipase C gamma 2 [KO:K05859] [EC:]
51196  PLCE1; phospholipase C epsilon 1 [KO:K05860] [EC:]
89869  PLCZ1; phospholipase C zeta 1 [KO:K05861] [EC:]
3708  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
952  CD38; CD38 molecule [KO:K01242] [EC:]
53373  TPCN1; two pore segment channel 1 [KO:K16896]
219931  TPCN2; two pore segment channel 2 [KO:K14077]
57192  MCOLN1; mucolipin TRP cation channel 1 [KO:K04992]
255231  MCOLN2; mucolipin TRP cation channel 2 [KO:K04993]
55283  MCOLN3; mucolipin TRP cation channel 3 [KO:K04994]
8877  SPHK1; sphingosine kinase 1 [KO:K04718] [EC:]
56848  SPHK2; sphingosine kinase 2 [KO:K04718] [EC:]
90550  MCU; mitochondrial calcium uniporter [KO:K20858]
7416  VDAC1; voltage dependent anion channel 1 [KO:K05862]
7417  VDAC2; voltage dependent anion channel 2 [KO:K15040]
7419  VDAC3; voltage dependent anion channel 3 [KO:K15041]
291  SLC25A4; solute carrier family 25 member 4 [KO:K05863]
292  SLC25A5; solute carrier family 25 member 5 [KO:K05863]
293  SLC25A6; solute carrier family 25 member 6 [KO:K05863]
83447  SLC25A31; solute carrier family 25 member 31 [KO:K05863]
10105  PPIF; peptidylprolyl isomerase F [KO:K09565] [EC:]
7134  TNNC1; troponin C1, slow skeletal and cardiac type [KO:K05865]
7125  TNNC2; troponin C2, fast skeletal type [KO:K12042]
810  CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
808  CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
801  CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
163688  CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
91860  CALML4; calmodulin like 4 [KO:K02183]
5260  PHKG1; phosphorylase kinase catalytic subunit gamma 1 [KO:K00871] [EC:]
5261  PHKG2; phosphorylase kinase catalytic subunit gamma 2 [KO:K00871] [EC:]
5257  PHKB; phosphorylase kinase regulatory subunit beta [KO:K07190]
5256  PHKA2; phosphorylase kinase regulatory subunit alpha 2 [KO:K07190]
5255  PHKA1; phosphorylase kinase regulatory subunit alpha 1 [KO:K07190]
4638  MYLK; myosin light chain kinase [KO:K00907] [EC:]
85366  MYLK2; myosin light chain kinase 2 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
91807  MYLK3; myosin light chain kinase 3 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
340156  MYLK4; myosin light chain kinase family member 4 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
57118  CAMK1D; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase ID [KO:K08794] [EC:]
57172  CAMK1G; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG [KO:K08794] [EC:]
8536  CAMK1; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase I [KO:K08794] [EC:]
815  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:]
817  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta [KO:K04515] [EC:]
816  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta [KO:K04515] [EC:]
818  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:]
814  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV [KO:K05869] [EC:]
5530  PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5532  PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5533  PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5534  PPP3R1; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K06268]
5535  PPP3R2; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K06268]
7942  TFEB; transcription factor EB [KO:K15590]
4772  NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 [KO:K04446]
4773  NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 [KO:K17334]
4842  NOS1; nitric oxide synthase 1 [KO:K13240] [EC:]
4843  NOS2; nitric oxide synthase 2 [KO:K13241] [EC:]
4846  NOS3; nitric oxide synthase 3 [KO:K13242] [EC:]
5136  PDE1A; phosphodiesterase 1A [KO:K13755] [EC:]
5153  PDE1B; phosphodiesterase 1B [KO:K13755] [EC:]
5137  PDE1C; phosphodiesterase 1C [KO:K13755] [EC:]
2185  PTK2B; protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta [KO:K05871] [EC:]
3707  ITPKB; inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B [KO:K00911] [EC:]
3706  ITPKA; inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase A [KO:K00911] [EC:]
80271  ITPKC; inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase C [KO:K00911] [EC:]
5578  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:]
5579  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:]
5582  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:]
C00002  ATP
C00004  NADH
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C06124  Sphingosine 1-phosphate
C11556  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,5-bisphosphate
C13050  Cyclic ADP-ribose
C13051  Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Berridge MJ, Bootman MD, Roderick HL.
Calcium signalling: dynamics, homeostasis and remodelling.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:517-29 (2003)
Berridge MJ, Lipp P, Bootman MD.
The versatility and universality of calcium signalling.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1:11-21 (2000)
Wang MC, Dolphin A, Kitmitto A.
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels: understanding function through structure.
FEBS Lett 564:245-50 (2004)
Ferrier GR, Howlett SE.
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling: role of membrane potential in regulation of contraction.
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hsa04010  MAPK signaling pathway
hsa04070  Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
hsa04210  Apoptosis
hsa04720  Long-term potentiation
hsa04730  Long-term depression
KO pathway

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