KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04213Help
Entry
hsa04213                    Pathway                                

Name
Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Aging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, recent work has shown that dietary restriction (DR) and genetic down-regulation of nutrient-sensing pathways, namely IIS (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling) and TOR (target-of- rapamycin) can substantially increase healthy life span of laboratory model organisms. These nutrient signaling pathways are conserved in various organisms. In worms, flies, and mammals, DR reduces signalling through IIS/TOR pathways, deactivating the PI3K/Akt/TOR intracellular signalling cascade and consequently activating the antiaging FOXO family transcription factor(s). In yeast, the effects of DR on life- span extension are associated with reduced activities of the TOR/Sch9 and Ras/PKA pathways and require the serine-threonine kinase Rim15 and transcription factors Gis1 and Msn2/4. These transcription factors (FOXO, DAF-16, Gis1, and Msn2/4) transactivate genes involved in resistance to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, DNA damage repair, glucose metabolism, autophagy and protection of proteins by chaperones.
Class
Organismal Systems; Aging
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa04213  Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species
hsa04213

Ortholog table
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
3630  INS; insulin [KO:K04526]
3643  INSR; insulin receptor [KO:K04527] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3479  IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 [KO:K05459]
3480  IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3667  IRS1; insulin receptor substrate 1 [KO:K16172]
8660  IRS2; insulin receptor substrate 2 [KO:K07187]
8471  IRS4; insulin receptor substrate 4 [KO:K17446]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
108  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
109  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
196883  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
111  ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
112  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
113  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
114  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
115  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
2308  FOXO1; forkhead box O1 [KO:K07201]
2309  FOXO3; forkhead box O3 [KO:K09408]
6648  SOD2; superoxide dismutase 2 [KO:K04564] [EC:1.15.1.1]
847  CAT; catalase [KO:K03781] [EC:1.11.1.6]
9474  ATG5; autophagy related 5 [KO:K08339]
5562  PRKAA1; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5563  PRKAA2; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 2 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5564  PRKAB1; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit beta 1 [KO:K07199]
5565  PRKAB2; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit beta 2 [KO:K07199]
5571  PRKAG1; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 1 [KO:K07200]
53632  PRKAG3; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 3 [KO:K07200]
51422  PRKAG2; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 2 [KO:K07200]
2475  MTOR; mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
57521  RPTOR; regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1 [KO:K07204]
84335  AKT1S1; AKT1 substrate 1 [KO:K16184]
6198  RPS6KB1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6199  RPS6KB2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B2 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
23411  SIRT1; sirtuin 1 [KO:K11411] [EC:3.5.1.-]
6647  SOD1; superoxide dismutase 1 [KO:K04565] [EC:1.15.1.1]
1979  EIF4EBP2; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 [KO:K18644]
3312  HSPA8; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8 [KO:K03283]
3303  HSPA1A; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1A [KO:K03283]
3306  HSPA2; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 2 [KO:K03283]
3305  HSPA1L; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like [KO:K03283]
3304  HSPA1B; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1B [KO:K03283]
3310  HSPA6; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 6 [KO:K03283]
1410  CRYAB; crystallin alpha B [KO:K09542]
3065  HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1 [KO:K06067] [EC:3.5.1.98]
3066  HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2 [KO:K06067] [EC:3.5.1.98]
3170  FOXA2; forkhead box A2 [KO:K08035]
81570  CLPB; ClpB homolog, mitochondrial AAA ATPase chaperonin [KO:K03695]
Compound
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Fontana L, Partridge L, Longo VD
  Title
Extending healthy life span--from yeast to humans.
  Journal
Science 328:321-6 (2010)
DOI:10.1126/science.1172539
Reference
  Authors
Parrella E, Longo VD
  Title
Insulin/IGF-I and related signaling pathways regulate aging in nondividing cells: from yeast to the mammalian brain.
  Journal
ScientificWorldJournal 10:161-77 (2010)
DOI:10.1100/tsw.2010.8
Reference
  Authors
Santos J, Leitao-Correia F, Sousa MJ, Leao C
  Title
Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging.
  Journal
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016:4010357 (2016)
DOI:10.1155/2016/4010357
Reference
  Authors
Longo VD, Lieber MR, Vijg J
  Title
Turning anti-ageing genes against cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:903-10 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nrm2526
Reference
  Authors
Longo VD, Mitteldorf J, Skulachev VP
  Title
Programmed and altruistic ageing.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 6:866-72 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrg1706
Reference
  Authors
Longo VD, Finch CE
  Title
Evolutionary medicine: from dwarf model systems to healthy centenarians?
  Journal
Science 299:1342-6 (2003)
DOI:10.1126/science.1077991
Reference
  Authors
Mirzaei H, Suarez JA, Longo VD
  Title
Protein and amino acid restriction, aging and disease: from yeast to humans.
  Journal
Trends Endocrinol Metab 25:558-66 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2014.07.002
Reference
  Authors
Kenyon CJ
  Title
The genetics of ageing.
  Journal
Nature 464:504-12 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/nature08980
Reference
  Authors
Longo VD, Fontana L
  Title
Calorie restriction and cancer prevention: metabolic and molecular mechanisms.
  Journal
Trends Pharmacol Sci 31:89-98 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.tips.2009.11.004
Reference
  Authors
Longo VD, Fabrizio P
  Title
Chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Journal
Subcell Biochem 57:101-21 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-2561-4_5
Reference
  Authors
Bitto A, Wang AM, Bennett CF, Kaeberlein M
  Title
Biochemical Genetic Pathways that Modulate Aging in Multiple Species.
  Journal
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5:a025114 (2015)
DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a025114
Reference
  Authors
Mair W, Dillin A
  Title
Aging and survival: the genetics of life span extension by dietary restriction.
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 77:727-54 (2008)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.77.061206.171059
Reference
  Authors
Dali-Youcef N, Lagouge M, Froelich S, Koehl C, Schoonjans K, Auwerx J
  Title
Sirtuins: the 'magnificent seven', function, metabolism and longevity.
  Journal
Ann Med 39:335-45 (2007)
DOI:10.1080/07853890701408194
Reference
  Authors
Rizki G, Iwata TN, Li J, Riedel CG, Picard CL, Jan M, Murphy CT, Lee SS
  Title
The evolutionarily conserved longevity determinants HCF-1 and SIR-2.1/SIRT1 collaborate to regulate DAF-16/FOXO.
  Journal
PLoS Genet 7:e1002235 (2011)
DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002235
Reference
  Authors
Lee SH, Min KJ
  Title
Caloric restriction and its mimetics.
  Journal
BMB Rep 46:181-7 (2013)
DOI:10.5483/BMBRep.2013.46.4.033
Reference
  Authors
Bordone L, Guarente L
  Title
Calorie restriction, SIRT1 and metabolism: understanding longevity.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:298-305 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrm1616
Reference
  Authors
Canto C, Auwerx J
  Title
Calorie restriction: is AMPK a key sensor and effector?
  Journal
Physiology (Bethesda) 26:214-24 (2011)
DOI:10.1152/physiol.00010.2011
Reference
  Authors
Barbieri M, Bonafe M, Franceschi C, Paolisso G
  Title
Insulin/IGF-I-signaling pathway: an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of longevity from yeast to humans.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285:E1064-71 (2003)
DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00296.2003
Reference
  Authors
Russell SJ, Kahn CR
  Title
Endocrine regulation of ageing.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:681-91 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/nrm2234
KO pathway
ko04213   

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