KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04215Help
Entry
hsa04215                    Pathway                                

Name
Apoptosis - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved process used by multicellular organisms to developmentally regulate cell number or to eliminate cells that are potentially detrimental to the organism. The major players are caspases, caspase inhibitors, members of the Bcl-2 family of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and adaptors of the Ced-4/APAF-1 type. Mammals, by comparison with Caenorhabditis and Drosophila, exhibit highly complex extrinsic and intrinsic pathways for apoptosis induction. However, recent analyses of whole genome sequences from cnidarians (e.g. Hydra) suggest that the caspase and Bcl-2 families were already highly complex in cnidarians and that Caenorhabditis and Drosophila lost many of the genes involved in apoptosis.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cell growth and death
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa04215  Apoptosis - multiple species
hsa04215

Ortholog table
Module
hsa_M00685  Apoptotic machinery [PATH:hsa04215]
Other DBs
BSID: 1384747
GO: 0006915
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
7132  TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A [KO:K03158]
8772  FADD; Fas associated via death domain [KO:K02373]
841  CASP8; caspase 8 [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
840  CASP7; caspase 7 [KO:K04397] [EC:3.4.22.60]
836  CASP3; caspase 3 [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
637  BID; BH3 interacting domain death agonist [KO:K04726]
10018  BCL2L11; BCL2 like 11 [KO:K16341]
5366  PMAIP1; phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 [KO:K10131]
27113  BBC3; BCL2 binding component 3 [KO:K10132]
596  BCL2; BCL2, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02161]
598  BCL2L1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
578  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
54205  CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
317  APAF1; apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 [KO:K02084]
842  CASP9; caspase 9 [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
56616  DIABLO; diablo IAP-binding mitochondrial protein [KO:K10522]
27429  HTRA2; HtrA serine peptidase 2 [KO:K08669] [EC:3.4.21.108]
5414  SEPT4; septin 4 [KO:K16943]
329  BIRC2; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 [KO:K16060]
330  BIRC3; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 [KO:K16060]
331  XIAP; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis [KO:K04725] [EC:2.3.2.27]
332  BIRC5; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 [KO:K08731]
5599  MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5602  MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5601  MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
666  BOK; BCL2 family apoptosis regulator BOK [KO:K02561]
79444  BIRC7; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 7 [KO:K16061]
112401  BIRC8; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 8 [KO:K16061]
4804  NGFR; nerve growth factor receptor [KO:K02583]
8678  BECN1; beclin 1 [KO:K08334]
441925  BECN2; beclin 2 [KO:K08334]
57448  BIRC6; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 6 [KO:K10586] [EC:2.3.2.23]
Reference
  Authors
Fuchs Y, Steller H
  Title
Live to die another way: modes of programmed cell death and the signals emanating from dying cells.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 16:329-44 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nrm3999
Reference
  Authors
Kumar S, Cakouros D
  Title
Transcriptional control of the core cell-death machinery.
  Journal
Trends Biochem Sci 29:193-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2004.02.001
Reference
  Authors
Bergmann A, Steller H
  Title
Apoptosis, stem cells, and tissue regeneration.
  Journal
Sci Signal 3:re8 (2010)
DOI:10.1126/scisignal.3145re8
Reference
  Authors
Zmasek CM, Godzik A
  Title
Evolution of the animal apoptosis network.
  Journal
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5:a008649 (2013)
DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a008649
Reference
  Authors
Twomey C, McCarthy JV
  Title
Pathways of apoptosis and importance in development.
  Journal
J Cell Mol Med 9:345-59 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2005.tb00360.x
Reference
  Authors
Nicholson DW
  Title
Caspase structure, proteolytic substrates, and function during apoptotic cell death.
  Journal
Cell Death Differ 6:1028-42 (1999)
DOI:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400598
Reference
  Authors
Wang C, Youle RJ
  Title
The role of mitochondria in apoptosis*.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 43:95-118 (2009)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-genet-102108-134850
Reference
  Authors
Choi D, Woo M
  Title
Executioners of apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells: not just for cell death.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E735-41 (2010)
DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00696.2009
Reference
  Authors
Joza N, Kroemer G, Penninger JM
  Title
Genetic analysis of the mammalian cell death machinery.
  Journal
Trends Genet 18:142-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0168-9525(01)02618-X
Reference
  Authors
Yan N, Wu JW, Chai J, Li W, Shi Y
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of DrICE inhibition by DIAP1 and removal of inhibition by Reaper, Hid and Grim.
  Journal
Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:420-8 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nsmb764
Reference
  Authors
Reiter S, Crescenzi M, Galliot B, Buzgariu W
  Title
Hydra, a versatile model to study the homeostatic and developmental functions of cell death.
  Journal
Int J Dev Biol 56:593-604 (2012)
DOI:10.1387/ijdb.123499sr
Reference
  Authors
Lasi M, Pauly B, Schmidt N, Cikala M, Stiening B, Kasbauer T, Zenner G, Popp T, Wagner A, Knapp RT, Huber AH, Grunert M, Soding J, David CN, Bottger A
  Title
The molecular cell death machinery in the simple cnidarian Hydra includes an expanded caspase family and pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.
  Journal
Cell Res 20:812-25 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/cr.2010.66
Reference
  Authors
Lasi M, David CN, Bottger A
  Title
Apoptosis in pre-Bilaterians: Hydra as a model.
  Journal
Apoptosis 15:269-78 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s10495-009-0442-7
Reference
  Authors
Romero A, Novoa B, Figueras A
  Title
The complexity of apoptotic cell death in mollusks: An update.
  Journal
Fish Shellfish Immunol 46:79-87 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2015.03.038
Reference
  Authors
Potts MB, Cameron S
  Title
Cell lineage and cell death: Caenorhabditis elegans and cancer research.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:50-8 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrc2984
Reference
  Authors
Lee EF, Young ND, Lim NT, Gasser RB, Fairlie WD
  Title
Apoptosis in schistosomes: toward novel targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 30:75-84 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2013.12.005
KO pathway
ko04215   

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