KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04978Help
hsa04978                    Pathway                                

Mineral absorption - Homo sapiens (human)
Minerals are one of the five fundamental groups of nutrients needed to sustain life. Of the minerals, calcium plays innumerable roles in our bodies, serving as a main component of bone as well as an intracellular messenger in muscle contraction/relaxation, neural networks, the immune system, and endocrine/exocrine cells. Iron, copper, and other metals are required for redox reactions (as cofactors) and for oxygen transport and binding (in hemoglobin and myoglobin). Many enzymes require specific metal atoms to complete their catalytic functions. Animal tissues need moderate quantities of some elements (Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, and Cl) and trace amounts of others (Mn, Fe, I, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se). The minerals are absorbed by either passive or active transport systems through the intestinal mucosa, often using specialized transport proteins, such as ferritin for Fe3+ and vitamin D-induced protein for calcium.
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa04978  Mineral absorption

Ortholog table
H00784  Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis
H00843  Hartnup disorder
H00905  Iminoglycinuria
H01143  Vitamin D-dependent rickets
H01145  Atransferrinemia
H01174  Congenital diarrhea
H01196  Hypochromic microcytic anemia
H01210  Hypomagnesemia
H01252  Hereditary folate malabsorption
H01304  Hyperglycinuria
H01593  Osteoporosis
D00129  Calcitriol (JAN/USP/INN)
D00187  Ergocalciferol (JP17/USP)
D00188  Cholecalciferol (JP17/USP)
D00299  Dihydrotachysterol (JAN/USP/INN)
D00628  Secalciferol (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01098  Maxacalcitol (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01125  Calcipotriene (USAN)
D01472  Tacalcitol hydrate (JP17)
D01518  Alfacalcidol (JAN/INN)
D01662  Falecalcitriol (JAN/INN)
D04790  Lubiprostone (JAN/USAN/INN)
D07578  Eldecalcitol (JAN/INN)
D08554  Tacalcitol (INN)
D10198  Calcipotriol hydrate (JAN)
D10669  Sotagliflozin (USAN/INN)
D11237  Lifastuzumab (USAN)
D11238  Lifastuzumab vedotin (USAN/INN)
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
7421  VDR; vitamin D receptor [KO:K08539]
140803  TRPM6; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 [KO:K04981] [EC:]
54822  TRPM7; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 [KO:K04982] [EC:]
55503  TRPV6; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 [KO:K04975]
795  S100G; S100 calcium binding protein G [KO:K14734]
1811  SLC26A3; solute carrier family 26 member 3 [KO:K14078]
65010  SLC26A6; solute carrier family 26 member 6 [KO:K14704]
115019  SLC26A9; solute carrier family 26 member 9 [KO:K14706]
1181  CLCN2; chloride voltage-gated channel 2 [KO:K05011]
6550  SLC9A3; solute carrier family 9 member A3 [KO:K12040]
6523  SLC5A1; solute carrier family 5 member 1 [KO:K14158]
340024  SLC6A19; solute carrier family 6 member 19 [KO:K05334]
476  ATP1A1; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 1 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
477  ATP1A2; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
478  ATP1A3; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 3 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
480  ATP1A4; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 4 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
23439  ATP1B4; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting family member beta 4 [KO:K01540]
481  ATP1B1; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 1 [KO:K01540]
482  ATP1B2; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 2 [KO:K01540]
483  ATP1B3; ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 3 [KO:K01540]
486  FXYD2; FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 2 [KO:K01538]
3162  HMOX1; heme oxygenase 1 [KO:K00510] [EC:]
3163  HMOX2; heme oxygenase 2 [KO:K21418] [EC:]
79901  CYBRD1; cytochrome b reductase 1 [KO:K08370] [EC:]
4891  SLC11A2; solute carrier family 11 member 2 [KO:K21398]
2495  FTH1; ferritin heavy chain 1 [KO:K00522] [EC:]
2512  FTL; ferritin light chain [KO:K13625]
30061  SLC40A1; solute carrier family 40 member 1 [KO:K14685]
9843  HEPH; hephaestin [KO:K14735] [EC:]
7018  TF; transferrin [KO:K14736]
55630  SLC39A4; solute carrier family 39 member 4 [KO:K14710]
7779  SLC30A1; solute carrier family 30 member 1 [KO:K14688]
1317  SLC31A1; solute carrier family 31 member 1 [KO:K14686]
26872  STEAP1; STEAP family member 1 [KO:K14737] [EC:1.16.1.-]
261729  STEAP2; STEAP2 metalloreductase [KO:K14738] [EC:1.16.1.-]
4490  MT1B; metallothionein 1B [KO:K14739]
4493  MT1E; metallothionein 1E [KO:K14739]
4494  MT1F; metallothionein 1F [KO:K14739]
4495  MT1G; metallothionein 1G [KO:K14739]
4496  MT1H; metallothionein 1H [KO:K14739]
4499  MT1M; metallothionein 1M [KO:K14739]
4501  MT1X; metallothionein 1X [KO:K14739]
4502  MT2A; metallothionein 2A [KO:K14739]
4489  MT1A; metallothionein 1A [KO:K14739]
645745  MT1HL1; metallothionein 1H like 1 [KO:K14739]
475  ATOX1; antioxidant 1 copper chaperone [KO:K07213]
10568  SLC34A2; solute carrier family 34 member 2 [KO:K14683]
113235  SLC46A1; solute carrier family 46 member 1 [KO:K14613]
490  ATP2B1; ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 1 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
538  ATP7A; ATPase copper transporting alpha [KO:K17686] [EC:]
6546  SLC8A1; solute carrier family 8 member A1 [KO:K05849]
C00009  Orthophosphate
C00031  D-Glucose
C00032  Heme
C00037  Glycine
C00038  Zinc cation
C00041  L-Alanine
C00064  L-Glutamine
C00065  L-Serine
C00070  Copper
C00073  L-Methionine
C00076  Calcium cation
C00078  L-Tryptophan
C00079  L-Phenylalanine
C00080  H+
C00123  L-Leucine
C00124  D-Galactose
C00148  L-Proline
C00152  L-Asparagine
C00183  L-Valine
C00188  L-Threonine
C00238  Potassium cation
C00288  HCO3-
C00305  Magnesium cation
C00407  L-Isoleucine
C00698  Cl-
C01330  Sodium cation
C01673  Calcitriol
C14818  Fe2+
C14819  Fe3+
Perez AV, Picotto G, Carpentieri AR, Rivoira MA, Peralta Lopez ME, Tolosa de Talamoni NG
Minireview on regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. Emphasis on molecular mechanisms of transcellular pathway.
Digestion 77:22-34 (2008)
Khanal RC, Nemere I
Regulation of intestinal calcium transport.
Annu Rev Nutr 28:179-96 (2008)
Hoenderop JG, Nilius B, Bindels RJ
Calcium absorption across epithelia.
Physiol Rev 85:373-422 (2005)
Bouillon R, Van Cromphaut S, Carmeliet G
Intestinal calcium absorption: Molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms.
J Cell Biochem 88:332-9 (2003)
Chua AC, Graham RM, Trinder D, Olynyk JK
The regulation of cellular iron metabolism.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 44:413-59 (2007)
West AR, Oates PS
Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: current questions and controversies.
World J Gastroenterol 14:4101-10 (2008)
Dunn LL, Rahmanto YS, Richardson DR
Iron uptake and metabolism in the new millennium.
Trends Cell Biol 17:93-100 (2007)
Donovan A, Roy CN, Andrews NC
The ins and outs of iron homeostasis.
Physiology (Bethesda) 21:115-23 (2006)
Lonnerdal B
Intestinal regulation of copper homeostasis: a developmental perspective.
Am J Clin Nutr 88:846S-50S (2008)
Prohaska JR
Role of copper transporters in copper homeostasis.
Am J Clin Nutr 88:826S-9S (2008)
Wang X, Zhou B
Dietary zinc absorption: A play of Zips and ZnTs in the gut.
IUBMB Life 62:176-82 (2010)
Lichten LA, Cousins RJ
Mammalian zinc transporters: nutritional and physiologic regulation.
Annu Rev Nutr 29:153-76 (2009)
Quamme GA
Recent developments in intestinal magnesium absorption.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:230-5 (2008)
Donowitz M, Mohan S, Zhu CX, Chen TE, Lin R, Cha B, Zachos NC, Murtazina R, Sarker R, Li X
NHE3 regulatory complexes.
J Exp Biol 212:1638-46 (2009)
Kato A, Romero MF
Regulation of Electroneutral NaCl Absorption by the Small Intestine.
Annu Rev Physiol 73:261-81 (2011)
Sabbagh Y, O'Brien SP, Song W, Boulanger JH, Stockmann A, Arbeeny C, Schiavi SC
Intestinal npt2b plays a major role in phosphate absorption and homeostasis.
J Am Soc Nephrol 20:2348-58 (2009)
Marks J, Srai SK, Biber J, Murer H, Unwin RJ, Debnam ES
Intestinal phosphate absorption and the effect of vitamin D: a comparison of rats with mice.
Exp Physiol 91:531-7 (2006)
KO pathway

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