KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05150Help
Entry
hsa05150                    Pathway                                

Name
Staphylococcus aureus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Staphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the effectiveness of the immune system: secreting immune modulating proteins that inhibit complement activation and neutrophil chemotaxis or lysis, modulating the sensitivity to cationic antimicrobial peptides (such as defensin) by increasing the positive net charge of its cytoplasmic membrane, and expression of superantigens that prevent development of a normal immune response or cause an emetic response when ingested.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious disease: bacterial
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa05150  Staphylococcus aureus infection
hsa05150

Ortholog table
Disease
H00330  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) infection
H00331  Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (VRSA) infection
H01409  Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
2266  FGG; fibrinogen gamma chain [KO:K03905]
718  C3; complement C3 [KO:K03990]
629  CFB; complement factor B [KO:K01335] [EC:3.4.21.47]
1675  CFD; complement factor D [KO:K01334] [EC:3.4.21.46]
3075  CFH; complement factor H [KO:K04004]
4153  MBL2; mannose binding lectin 2 [KO:K03991]
5648  MASP1; mannan binding lectin serine peptidase 1 [KO:K03992] [EC:3.4.21.-]
10747  MASP2; mannan binding lectin serine peptidase 2 [KO:K03993] [EC:3.4.21.104]
102723407  IGH; immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-38-2-like [KO:K06856]
712  C1QA; complement C1q A chain [KO:K03986]
713  C1QB; complement C1q B chain [KO:K03987]
714  C1QC; complement C1q C chain [KO:K03988]
715  C1R; complement C1r [KO:K01330] [EC:3.4.21.41]
716  C1S; complement C1s [KO:K01331] [EC:3.4.21.42]
717  C2; complement C2 [KO:K01332] [EC:3.4.21.43]
720  C4A; complement C4A (Rodgers blood group) [KO:K03989]
721  C4B; complement C4B (Chido blood group) [KO:K03989]
727  C5; complement C5 [KO:K03994]
719  C3AR1; complement C3a receptor 1 [KO:K04009]
728  C5AR1; complement C5a receptor 1 [KO:K04010]
2209  FCGR1A; Fc fragment of IgG receptor Ia [KO:K06498]
2212  FCGR2A; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIa [KO:K06472]
2213  FCGR2B; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb [KO:K12560]
9103  FCGR2C; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIc (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K16824]
2214  FCGR3A; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIIa [KO:K06463]
2215  FCGR3B; Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIIb [KO:K06463]
2204  FCAR; Fc fragment of IgA receptor [KO:K06513]
2359  FPR3; formyl peptide receptor 3 [KO:K04173]
2358  FPR2; formyl peptide receptor 2 [KO:K04173]
2357  FPR1; formyl peptide receptor 1 [KO:K04172]
5340  PLG; plasminogen [KO:K01315] [EC:3.4.21.7]
3426  CFI; complement factor I [KO:K01333] [EC:3.4.21.45]
6404  SELPLG; selectin P ligand [KO:K06544]
6403  SELP; selectin P [KO:K06496]
3383  ICAM1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06490]
3683  ITGAL; integrin subunit alpha L [KO:K05718]
3684  ITGAM; integrin subunit alpha M [KO:K06461]
3689  ITGB2; integrin subunit beta 2 [KO:K06464]
1672  DEFB1; defensin beta 1 [KO:K23125]
1673  DEFB4A; defensin beta 4A [KO:K21100]
100289462  DEFB4B; defensin beta 4B [KO:K21100]
414325  DEFB103A; defensin beta 103A [KO:K23126]
55894  DEFB103B; defensin beta 103B [KO:K23126]
1667  DEFA1; defensin alpha 1 [KO:K05230]
1668  DEFA3; defensin alpha 3 [KO:K05230]
1669  DEFA4; defensin alpha 4 [KO:K05230]
1670  DEFA5; defensin alpha 5 [KO:K05230]
1671  DEFA6; defensin alpha 6 [KO:K05230]
728358  DEFA1B; defensin alpha 1B [KO:K05230]
820  CAMP; cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide [KO:K13916]
1828  DSG1; desmoglein 1 [KO:K07596]
3108  HLA-DMA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha [KO:K06752]
3109  HLA-DMB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta [KO:K06752]
3111  HLA-DOA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO alpha [KO:K06752]
3112  HLA-DOB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta [KO:K06752]
3113  HLA-DPA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
3115  HLA-DPB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3117  HLA-DQA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
3118  HLA-DQA2; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2 [KO:K06752]
3119  HLA-DQB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3122  HLA-DRA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha [KO:K06752]
3123  HLA-DRB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3125  HLA-DRB3; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 3 [KO:K06752]
3126  HLA-DRB4; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 4 [KO:K06752]
3127  HLA-DRB5; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5 [KO:K06752]
5724  PTAFR; platelet activating factor receptor [KO:K04279]
3586  IL10; interleukin 10 [KO:K05443]
3858  KRT10; keratin 10 [KO:K07604]
Compound
C11596  FMLP
C20898  Lipoteichoic acid
Reference
  Authors
Foster TJ
  Title
Colonization and infection of the human host by staphylococci: adhesion, survival and immune evasion.
  Journal
Vet Dermatol 20:456-70 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00825.x
Reference
  Authors
Foster TJ
  Title
Immune evasion by staphylococci.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 3:948-58 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro1289
Reference
  Authors
Laarman A, Milder F, van Strijp J, Rooijakkers S
  Title
Complement inhibition by gram-positive pathogens: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.
  Journal
J Mol Med 88:115-20 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s00109-009-0572-y
Reference
  Authors
Rooijakkers SH, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA
  Title
Staphylococcal innate immune evasion.
  Journal
Trends Microbiol 13:596-601 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.tim.2005.10.002
Reference
  Authors
Iwatsuki K, Yamasaki O, Morizane S, Oono T
  Title
Staphylococcal cutaneous infections: invasion, evasion and aggression.
  Journal
J Dermatol Sci 42:203-14 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.03.011
Reference
  Authors
Torres BA, Kominsky S, Perrin GQ, Hobeika AC, Johnson HM
  Title
Superantigens: the good, the bad, and the ugly.
  Journal
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 226:164-76 (2001)
DOI:10.1177/153537020122600303
Reference
  Authors
Atkins KL, Burman JD, Chamberlain ES, Cooper JE, Poutrel B, Bagby S, Jenkins AT, Feil EJ, van den Elsen JM
  Title
S. aureus IgG-binding proteins SpA and Sbi: host specificity and mechanisms of immune complex formation.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 45:1600-11 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.10.021
Reference
  Authors
Silverman GJ, Goodyear CS
  Title
Confounding B-cell defences: lessons from a staphylococcal superantigen.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 6:465-75 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nri1853
Reference
  Authors
Goodyear CS, Silverman GJ
  Title
Staphylococcal toxin induced preferential and prolonged in vivo deletion of innate-like B lymphocytes.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11392-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0404382101
Reference
  Authors
Haupt K, Reuter M, van den Elsen J, Burman J, Halbich S, Richter J, Skerka C, Zipfel PF
  Title
The Staphylococcus aureus protein Sbi acts as a complement inhibitor and forms a tripartite complex with host complement Factor H and C3b.
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000250 (2008)
DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000250
Reference
  Authors
Bokarewa MI, Jin T, Tarkowski A
  Title
Staphylococcus aureus: Staphylokinase.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38:504-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.07.005
Reference
  Authors
Rooijakkers SH, Ruyken M, Roos A, Daha MR, Presanis JS, Sim RB, van Wamel WJ, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA
  Title
Immune evasion by a staphylococcal complement inhibitor that acts on C3 convertases.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 6:920-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/ni1235
Reference
  Authors
Rooijakkers SH, Wu J, Ruyken M, van Domselaar R, Planken KL, Tzekou A, Ricklin D, Lambris JD, Janssen BJ, van Strijp JA, Gros P
  Title
Structural and functional implications of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase stabilized by a staphylococcal inhibitor.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 10:721-7 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/ni.1756
Reference
  Authors
Jongerius I, Kohl J, Pandey MK, Ruyken M, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA, Rooijakkers SH
  Title
Staphylococcal complement evasion by various convertase-blocking molecules.
  Journal
J Exp Med 204:2461-71 (2007)
DOI:10.1084/jem.20070818
Reference
  Authors
Hair PS, Ward MD, Semmes OJ, Foster TJ, Cunnion KM
  Title
Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor A binds to complement regulator factor I and increases factor I cleavage of C3b.
  Journal
J Infect Dis 198:125-33 (2008)
DOI:10.1086/588825
Reference
  Authors
Higgins J, Loughman A, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA, Foster TJ
  Title
Clumping factor A of Staphylococcus aureus inhibits phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 258:290-6 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00229.x
Reference
  Authors
Laursen NS, Gordon N, Hermans S, Lorenz N, Jackson N, Wines B, Spillner E, Christensen JB, Jensen M, Fredslund F, Bjerre M, Sottrup-Jensen L, Fraser JD, Andersen GR
  Title
Structural basis for inhibition of complement C5 by the SSL7 protein from Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3681-6 (2010)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0910565107
Reference
  Authors
Ramsland PA, Willoughby N, Trist HM, Farrugia W, Hogarth PM, Fraser JD, Wines BD
  Title
Structural basis for evasion of IgA immunity by Staphylococcus aureus revealed in the complex of SSL7 with Fc of human IgA1.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15051-6 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0706028104
Reference
  Authors
de Haas CJ, Veldkamp KE, Peschel A, Weerkamp F, Van Wamel WJ, Heezius EC, Poppelier MJ, Van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA
  Title
Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial antiinflammatory agent.
  Journal
J Exp Med 199:687-95 (2004)
DOI:10.1084/jem.20031636
Reference
  Authors
Prat C, Bestebroer J, de Haas CJ, van Strijp JA, van Kessel KP
  Title
A new staphylococcal anti-inflammatory protein that antagonizes the formyl peptide receptor-like 1.
  Journal
J Immunol 177:8017-26 (2006)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.177.11.8017
Reference
  Authors
Bestebroer J, Poppelier MJ, Ulfman LH, Lenting PJ, Denis CV, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA, de Haas CJ
  Title
Staphylococcal superantigen-like 5 binds PSGL-1 and inhibits P-selectin-mediated neutrophil rolling.
  Journal
Blood 109:2936-43 (2007)
DOI:10.1182/blood-2006-06-015461
Reference
  Authors
Chung MC, Wines BD, Baker H, Langley RJ, Baker EN, Fraser JD
  Title
The crystal structure of staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 11 in complex with sialyl Lewis X reveals the mechanism for cell binding and immune inhibition.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 66:1342-55 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05989.x
Reference
  Authors
Chavakis T, Hussain M, Kanse SM, Peters G, Bretzel RG, Flock JI, Herrmann M, Preissner KT
  Title
Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein serves as anti-inflammatory factor by inhibiting the recruitment of host leukocytes.
  Journal
Nat Med 8:687-93 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nm728
Reference
  Authors
Li M, Lai Y, Villaruz AE, Cha DJ, Sturdevant DE, Otto M
  Title
Gram-positive three-component antimicrobial peptide-sensing system.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9469-74 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0702159104
Reference
  Authors
Sieprawska-Lupa M, Mydel P, Krawczyk K, Wojcik K, Puklo M, Lupa B, Suder P, Silberring J, Reed M, Pohl J, Shafer W, McAleese F, Foster T, Travis J, Potempa J
  Title
Degradation of human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by Staphylococcus aureus-derived proteinases.
  Journal
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4673-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/AAC.48.12.4673-4679.2004
Reference
  Authors
Fraser JD, Proft T
  Title
The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 225:226-43 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00681.x
Reference
  Authors
Yamaguchi T, Nishifuji K, Sasaki M, Fudaba Y, Aepfelbacher M, Takata T, Ohara M, Komatsuzawa H, Amagai M, Sugai M
  Title
Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus etd pathogenicity island which encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, ETD, and EDIN-B.
  Journal
Infect Immun 70:5835-45 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/IAI.70.10.5835-5845.2002
Reference
  Authors
Pazgier M, Hoover DM, Yang D, Lu W, Lubkowski J
  Title
Human beta-defensins.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 63:1294-313 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-005-5540-2
Reference
  Authors
Zhang Q, Mousdicas N, Yi Q, Al-Hassani M, Billings SD, Perkins SM, Howard KM, Ishii S, Shimizu T, Travers JB
  Title
Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions via the platelet-activating factor receptor.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:2855-61 (2005)
DOI:10.1172/JCI25429
Reference
  Authors
Lehrer RI
  Title
Primate defensins.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 2:727-38 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro976
KO pathway
ko05150   

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