KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05160Help
Entry
hsa05160                    Pathway                                

Name
Hepatitis C - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the cytoplasm of the host cell and forms membrane-associated replication complexes along with non-structural proteins. Viral RNA can trigger the RIG-I pathway and interferon production during this process. Translated HCV protein products regulate immune response to inhibit the action of interferon. HCV core and NS5A proteins appear to be the most important molecules with regulatory functions that modulate transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious disease: viral
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa05160  Hepatitis C
hsa05160

Ortholog table
Network
nt06110  MAPK signaling (virus)
nt06114  PI3K signaling (virus)
nt06121  TLR signaling (virus)
nt06122  IFN signaling (virus)
nt06123  TNF signaling (virus)
nt06130  Cell cycle (virus)
nt06131  Apoptosis (virus)
nt06133  RIG-I signaling (virus)
nt06137  OAS/RNase L pathway (virus)
nt06163  Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
nt06210  ERK signaling
nt06214  PI3K signaling
nt06222  IFN signaling
nt06263  Hepatocellular carcinoma
  Element
N00269  HCV core to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00270  HCV Core to IFN signaling pathway
N00271  HCV NS3/4A to RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway
N00272  HCV NS5A to PI3K signaling pathway
N00273  HCV NS5A to oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway
N00274  HCV NS5A to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00516  HCV NS3/4A to TLR3-IRF3 signaling pathway
N00517  HCV NS3/4A to TLR3-IRF3 signaling pathway
N00518  HCV Core to ERK signaling pathway
N00519  HCV Core to ERK signaling pathway
N00520  HCV NS5A to p21-cell cycle G1/S
N00521  HCV Core to p21-cell cycle G1/S
N00522  HCV NS3 to p21-cell cycle G1/S
N00523  HCV Core to p21-cell cycle G1/S
N00524  HCV NS5A to extrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00525  HCV NS5A to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00526  HCV NS3 to crosstalk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways
N00527  HCV Core to crosstalk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways
N00528  HCV core to extrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00529  HCV core to RXRA/PPARA-mediated transcription
N00530  HCV core to RXRA/LXRA-mediated transcription
Disease
H00048  Hepatocellular carcinoma
H00413  Hepatitis C
Drug
D02745  Interferon alfa-2b (USAN)
D02747  Peginterferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN)
D02748  Peginterferon alfa-2b (INN)
D03304  Interferon beta (JAN)
D03305  Interferon alfa (NAMALWA) (JP17)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
100132463  CLDN24; claudin 24 [KO:K06087]
100506658  OCLN; occludin [KO:K06088]
10062  NR1H3; nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3 [KO:K08536]
1017  CDK2; cyclin dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1019  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
10197  PSME3; proteasome activator subunit 3 [KO:K06698]
1021  CDK6; cyclin dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
10379  IRF9; interferon regulatory factor 9 [KO:K04693]
10686  CLDN16; claudin 16 [KO:K06087]
10971  YWHAQ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein theta [KO:K16197]
1147  CHUK; component of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase complex [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
1364  CLDN4; claudin 4 [KO:K06087]
1365  CLDN3; claudin 3 [KO:K06087]
1366  CLDN7; claudin 7 [KO:K06087]
137075  CLDN23; claudin 23 [KO:K06087]
148022  TICAM1; toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 [KO:K05842]
149461  CLDN19; claudin 19 [KO:K06087]
1499  CTNNB1; catenin beta 1 [KO:K02105]
1869  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
1950  EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
1956  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1965  EIF2S1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha [KO:K03237]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
23562  CLDN14; claudin 14 [KO:K06087]
23586  DDX58; DExD/H-box helicase 58 [KO:K12646] [EC:3.6.4.13]
24146  CLDN15; claudin 15 [KO:K06087]
26285  CLDN17; claudin 17 [KO:K06087]
27102  EIF2AK1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 1 [KO:K16194] [EC:2.7.11.1]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
29110  TBK1; TANK binding kinase 1 [KO:K05410] [EC:2.7.11.10]
2932  GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
317  APAF1; apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 [KO:K02084]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3434  IFIT1; interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 [KO:K14217]
3439  IFNA1; interferon alpha 1 [KO:K05414]
3440  IFNA2; interferon alpha 2 [KO:K05414]
3441  IFNA4; interferon alpha 4 [KO:K05414]
3442  IFNA5; interferon alpha 5 [KO:K05414]
3443  IFNA6; interferon alpha 6 [KO:K05414]
3444  IFNA7; interferon alpha 7 [KO:K05414]
3445  IFNA8; interferon alpha 8 [KO:K05414]
3446  IFNA10; interferon alpha 10 [KO:K05414]
3447  IFNA13; interferon alpha 13 [KO:K05414]
3448  IFNA14; interferon alpha 14 [KO:K05414]
3449  IFNA16; interferon alpha 16 [KO:K05414]
3451  IFNA17; interferon alpha 17 [KO:K05414]
3452  IFNA21; interferon alpha 21 [KO:K05414]
3454  IFNAR1; interferon alpha and beta receptor subunit 1 [KO:K05130]
3455  IFNAR2; interferon alpha and beta receptor subunit 2 [KO:K05131]
3456  IFNB1; interferon beta 1 [KO:K05415]
3458  IFNG; interferon gamma [KO:K04687]
355  FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor [KO:K04390]
3551  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
356  FASLG; Fas ligand [KO:K04389]
3627  CXCL10; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 [KO:K12671]
3646  EIF3E; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E [KO:K03250]
3661  IRF3; interferon regulatory factor 3 [KO:K05411]
3665  IRF7; interferon regulatory factor 7 [KO:K09447]
369  ARAF; A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:2.7.11.1]
3716  JAK1; Janus kinase 1 [KO:K11217] [EC:2.7.10.2]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
3949  LDLR; low density lipoprotein receptor [KO:K12473]
439996  IFIT1B; interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1B [KO:K14217]
440275  EIF2AK4; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 [KO:K16196] [EC:2.7.11.1]
4599  MX1; MX dynamin like GTPase 1 [KO:K14754]
4609  MYC; MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [KO:K04377]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
4792  NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha [KO:K04734]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
4938  OAS1; 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 [KO:K14216] [EC:2.7.7.84]
4939  OAS2; 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 [KO:K14216] [EC:2.7.7.84]
4940  OAS3; 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 3 [KO:K14216] [EC:2.7.7.84]
49861  CLDN20; claudin 20 [KO:K06087]
5010  CLDN11; claudin 11 [KO:K06087]
51208  CLDN18; claudin 18 [KO:K06087]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
53842  CLDN22; claudin 22 [KO:K06087]
54205  CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
5465  PPARA; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha [KO:K07294]
5515  PPP2CA; protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5516  PPP2CB; protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5518  PPP2R1A; protein phosphatase 2 scaffold subunit Aalpha [KO:K03456]
5519  PPP2R1B; protein phosphatase 2 scaffold subunit Abeta [KO:K03456]
5520  PPP2R2A; protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit Balpha [KO:K04354]
5521  PPP2R2B; protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit Bbeta [KO:K04354]
5522  PPP2R2C; protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit Bgamma [KO:K04354]
55844  PPP2R2D; protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit Bdelta [KO:K04354]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5610  EIF2AK2; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 2 [KO:K16195] [EC:2.7.11.1]
572  BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
57506  MAVS; mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein [KO:K12648]
578  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
6041  RNASEL; ribonuclease L [KO:K01165]
6256  RXRA; retinoid X receptor alpha [KO:K08524]
637  BID; BH3 interacting domain death agonist [KO:K04726]
644672  CLDN25; claudin 25 [KO:K06087]
6654  SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
673  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6772  STAT1; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [KO:K11220]
6773  STAT2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 [KO:K11221]
6774  STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [KO:K04692]
7098  TLR3; toll like receptor 3 [KO:K05401]
7122  CLDN5; claudin 5 [KO:K06087]
7124  TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
7132  TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A [KO:K03158]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
7186  TRAF2; TNF receptor associated factor 2 [KO:K03173] [EC:2.3.2.27]
7187  TRAF3; TNF receptor associated factor 3 [KO:K03174]
7189  TRAF6; TNF receptor associated factor 6 [KO:K03175] [EC:2.3.2.27]
7297  TYK2; tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K11219] [EC:2.7.10.2]
7529  YWHAB; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta [KO:K16197]
7531  YWHAE; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon [KO:K06630]
7532  YWHAG; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma [KO:K16198]
7533  YWHAH; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein eta [KO:K16198]
7534  YWHAZ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta [KO:K16197]
836  CASP3; caspase 3 [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
841  CASP8; caspase 8 [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
842  CASP9; caspase 9 [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
8554  PIAS1; protein inhibitor of activated STAT 1 [KO:K04706] [EC:2.3.2.-]
8717  TRADD; TNFRSF1A associated via death domain [KO:K03171]
8737  RIPK1; receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K02861] [EC:2.7.11.1]
8772  FADD; Fas associated via death domain [KO:K02373]
8837  CFLAR; CASP8 and FADD like apoptosis regulator [KO:K04724]
9021  SOCS3; suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 [KO:K04696]
9071  CLDN10; claudin 10 [KO:K06087]
9073  CLDN8; claudin 8 [KO:K06087]
9074  CLDN6; claudin 6 [KO:K06087]
9075  CLDN2; claudin 2 [KO:K06087]
9076  CLDN1; claudin 1 [KO:K06087]
9080  CLDN9; claudin 9 [KO:K06087]
91543  RSAD2; radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 [KO:K15045]
9451  EIF2AK3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 [KO:K08860] [EC:2.7.11.1]
949  SCARB1; scavenger receptor class B member 1 [KO:K13885]
9641  IKBKE; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit epsilon [KO:K07211] [EC:2.7.11.10]
975  CD81; CD81 molecule [KO:K06508]
Compound
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C20935  2-5A
Reference
  Authors
Hassan M, Selimovic D, El-Khattouti A, Ghozlan H, Haikel Y, Abdelkader O
  Title
Hepatitis C virus-host interactions: Etiopathogenesis and therapeutic strategies.
  Journal
World J Exp Med 2:7-25 (2012)
DOI:10.5493/wjem.v2.i2.7
Reference
  Authors
Yamauchi Y, Helenius A
  Title
Virus entry at a glance.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 126:1289-95 (2013)
DOI:10.1242/jcs.119685
Reference
  Authors
Feneant L, Levy S, Cocquerel L
  Title
CD81 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
  Journal
Viruses 6:535-72 (2014)
DOI:10.3390/v6020535
Reference
  Authors
Dubuisson J, Helle F, Cocquerel L
  Title
Early steps of the hepatitis C virus life cycle.
  Journal
Cell Microbiol 10:821-7 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2007.01107.x
Reference
  Authors
Liang TJ, Ghany MG
  Title
Current and future therapies for hepatitis C virus infection.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 368:1907-17 (2013)
DOI:10.1056/NEJMra1213651
Reference
  Authors
Scheel TK, Rice CM
  Title
Understanding the hepatitis C virus life cycle paves the way for highly effective therapies.
  Journal
Nat Med 19:837-49 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nm.3248
Reference
  Authors
Holmes JA, Thompson AJ
  Title
Interferon-free combination therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C: current insights.
  Journal
Hepat Med 7:51-70 (2015)
DOI:10.2147/HMER.S55864
Reference
  Authors
Taguchi T, Nagano-Fujii M, Akutsu M, Kadoya H, Ohgimoto S, Ishido S, Hotta H
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein interacts with 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and inhibits antiviral activity of IFN in an IFN sensitivity-determining region-independent manner.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 85:959-69 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/vir.0.19513-0
Reference
  Authors
Horner SM, Gale M Jr
  Title
Intracellular innate immune cascades and interferon defenses that control hepatitis C virus.
  Journal
J Interferon Cytokine Res 29:489-98 (2009)
DOI:10.1089/jir.2009.0063
Reference
  Authors
Lemon SM
  Title
Induction and evasion of innate antiviral responses by hepatitis C virus.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 285:22741-7 (2010)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.R109.099556
Reference
  Authors
Horner SM, Gale M Jr
  Title
Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus.
  Journal
Nat Med 19:879-88 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nm.3253
Reference
  Authors
Ortega-Prieto AM, Dorner M
  Title
Immune Evasion Strategies during Chronic Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection.
  Journal
Vaccines (Basel) 5:E24 (2017)
DOI:10.3390/vaccines5030024
Reference
  Authors
Yang DR, Zhu HZ
  Title
Hepatitis C virus and antiviral innate immunity: who wins at tug-of-war?
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 21:3786-800 (2015)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i13.3786
Reference
  Authors
Gale M Jr, Foy EM
  Title
Evasion of intracellular host defence by hepatitis C virus.
  Journal
Nature 436:939-45 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nature04078
Reference
  Authors
Bode JG, Brenndorfer ED, Haussinger D
  Title
Subversion of innate host antiviral strategies by the hepatitis C virus.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 462:254-65 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2007.03.033
Reference
  Authors
Panteva M, Korkaya H, Jameel S
  Title
Hepatitis viruses and the MAPK pathway: is this a survival strategy?
  Journal
Virus Res 92:131-40 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0168-1702(02)00356-8
Reference
  Authors
Pang R, Tse E, Poon RT
  Title
Molecular pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 240:157-69 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.08.031
Reference
  Authors
Macdonald A, Harris M
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A: tales of a promiscuous protein.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 85:2485-502 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/vir.0.80204-0
Reference
  Authors
He Y, Staschke KA, Tan SL
  Title
HCV NS5A: A Multifunctional Regulator of Cellular Pathways and Virus Replication
  Journal
Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Lan KH, Sheu ML, Hwang SJ, Yen SH, Chen SY, Wu JC, Wang YJ, Kato N, Omata M, Chang FY, Lee SD
  Title
HCV NS5A interacts with p53 and inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.
  Journal
Oncogene 21:4801-11 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1205589
Reference
  Authors
Majumder M, Ghosh AK, Steele R, Zhou XY, Phillips NJ, Ray R, Ray RB
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein impairs TNF-mediated hepatic apoptosis, but not by an anti-FAS antibody, in transgenic mice.
  Journal
Virology 294:94-105 (2002)
DOI:10.1006/viro.2001.1309
Reference
  Authors
Hassan M, Ghozlan H, Abdel-Kader O
  Title
Activation of RB/E2F signaling pathway is required for the modulation of hepatitis C virus core protein-induced cell growth in liver and non-liver cells.
  Journal
Cell Signal 16:1375-85 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2004.04.005
Reference
  Authors
Kwun HJ, Jung EY, Ahn JY, Lee MN, Jang KL
  Title
p53-dependent transcriptional repression of p21(waf1) by hepatitis C virus NS3.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 82:2235-41 (2001)
DOI:10.1099/0022-1317-82-9-2235
Reference
  Authors
Yamanaka T, Uchida M, Doi T
  Title
Innate form of HCV core protein plays an important role in the localization and the function of HCV core protein.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 294:521-7 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00507-7
Reference
  Authors
Lim EJ, Chin R, Angus PW, Torresi J
  Title
Enhanced apoptosis in post-liver transplant hepatitis C: effects of virus and immunosuppressants.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 18:2172-9 (2012)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i18.2172
Reference
  Authors
Fischer R, Baumert T, Blum HE
  Title
Hepatitis C virus infection and apoptosis.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 13:4865-72 (2007)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.v13.i36.4865
Reference
  Authors
Saito K, Meyer K, Warner R, Basu A, Ray RB, Ray R
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis by a protective effect involving cellular FLICE inhibitory protein.
  Journal
J Virol 80:4372-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1128/JVI.80.9.4372-4379.2006
Reference
  Authors
Koike K
  Title
Steatosis, liver injury, and hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis C viral infection.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol 44 Suppl 19:82-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/s00535-008-2276-4
Reference
  Authors
Tanaka N, Moriya K, Kiyosawa K, Koike K, Aoyama T
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein induces spontaneous and persistent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in transgenic mice: implications for HCV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Int J Cancer 122:124-31 (2008)
DOI:10.1002/ijc.23056
Reference
  Authors
Tan A, Yeh SH, Liu CJ, Cheung C, Chen PJ
  Title
Viral hepatocarcinogenesis: from infection to cancer.
  Journal
Liver Int 28:175-88 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01652.x
KO pathway
ko05160   

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