KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05166Help
hsa05166                    Pathway                                

HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Expression of Tax, a viral regulatory protein is critical to the pathogenesis. Tax is a transcriptional co-factor that interfere several signaling pathways related to anti-apoptosis or cell proliferation. The modulation of the signaling by Tax involve its binding to transcription factors like CREB/ATF, NF-kappa B, SRF, and NFAT.
Human Diseases; Infectious diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa05166  HTLV-I infection

Ortholog table
N00221  HTLV-I Tax to host-cell-protein activation
N00222  HTLV-I Tax to host-cell-protein inhibition
H00009  Adult T-cell leukemia
H01724  HTLV1-associated myelopathy (HAM)
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
7040  TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta 1 [KO:K13375]
7042  TGFB2; transforming growth factor beta 2 [KO:K13376]
7043  TGFB3; transforming growth factor beta 3 [KO:K13377]
6513  SLC2A1; solute carrier family 2 member 1 [KO:K07299]
8829  NRP1; neuropilin 1 [KO:K06724]
7412  VCAM1; vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06527]
915  CD3D; CD3d molecule [KO:K06450]
916  CD3E; CD3e molecule [KO:K06451]
917  CD3G; CD3g molecule [KO:K06452]
3383  ICAM1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06490]
3683  ITGAL; integrin subunit alpha L [KO:K05718]
3689  ITGB2; integrin subunit beta 2 [KO:K06464]
7094  TLN1; talin 1 [KO:K06271]
83660  TLN2; talin 2 [KO:K06271]
4609  MYC; MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [KO:K04377]
8295  TRRAP; transformation/transcription domain associated protein [KO:K08874]
10524  KAT5; lysine acetyltransferase 5 [KO:K11304] [EC:]
894  CCND2; cyclin D2 [KO:K10151]
8498  RANBP3; RAN binding protein 3 [KO:K15304]
5901  RAN; RAN, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07936]
7514  XPO1; exportin 1 [KO:K14290]
3105  HLA-A; major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [KO:K06751]
3106  HLA-B; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B [KO:K06751]
3107  HLA-C; major histocompatibility complex, class I, C [KO:K06751]
3134  HLA-F; major histocompatibility complex, class I, F [KO:K06751]
3135  HLA-G; major histocompatibility complex, class I, G [KO:K06751]
3133  HLA-E; major histocompatibility complex, class I, E [KO:K06751]
811  CALR; calreticulin [KO:K08057]
5530  PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5532  PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5533  PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5534  PPP3R1; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K06268]
5535  PPP3R2; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K06268]
4772  NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 [KO:K04446]
4773  NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 [KO:K17334]
821  CANX; calnexin [KO:K08054]
3560  IL2RB; interleukin 2 receptor subunit beta [KO:K05069]
3561  IL2RG; interleukin 2 receptor subunit gamma [KO:K05070]
3716  JAK1; Janus kinase 1 [KO:K11217] [EC:]
3718  JAK3; Janus kinase 3 [KO:K11218] [EC:]
6776  STAT5A; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A [KO:K11223]
6777  STAT5B; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [KO:K11224]
2224  FDPS; farnesyl diphosphate synthase [KO:K00787] [EC:]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
6237  RRAS; RAS related [KO:K07829]
22800  RRAS2; RAS related 2 [KO:K07830]
22808  MRAS; muscle RAS oncogene homolog [KO:K07831]
7416  VDAC1; voltage dependent anion channel 1 [KO:K05862]
291  SLC25A4; solute carrier family 25 member 4 [KO:K05863]
292  SLC25A5; solute carrier family 25 member 5 [KO:K05863]
293  SLC25A6; solute carrier family 25 member 6 [KO:K05863]
83447  SLC25A31; solute carrier family 25 member 31 [KO:K05863]
7417  VDAC2; voltage dependent anion channel 2 [KO:K15040]
7419  VDAC3; voltage dependent anion channel 3 [KO:K15041]
706  TSPO; translocator protein [KO:K05770]
55697  VAC14; Vac14, PIKFYVE complex component [KO:K15305]
5902  RANBP1; RAN binding protein 1 [KO:K15306]
4085  MAD2L1; mitotic arrest deficient 2 like 1 [KO:K02537]
701  BUB1B; BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B [KO:K06637] [EC:]
9184  BUB3; BUB3, mitotic checkpoint protein [KO:K02180]
991  CDC20; cell division cycle 20 [KO:K03363]
64682  ANAPC1; anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 [KO:K03348]
29882  ANAPC2; anaphase promoting complex subunit 2 [KO:K03349]
996  CDC27; cell division cycle 27 [KO:K03350]
29945  ANAPC4; anaphase promoting complex subunit 4 [KO:K03351]
51433  ANAPC5; anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 [KO:K03352]
8881  CDC16; cell division cycle 16 [KO:K03353]
51434  ANAPC7; anaphase promoting complex subunit 7 [KO:K03354]
8697  CDC23; cell division cycle 23 [KO:K03355]
10393  ANAPC10; anaphase promoting complex subunit 10 [KO:K03357]
51529  ANAPC11; anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 [KO:K03358]
246184  CDC26; cell division cycle 26 [KO:K03359]
9232  PTTG1; pituitary tumor-transforming 1 [KO:K06635]
10744  PTTG2; pituitary tumor-transforming 2 [KO:K06635]
9133  CCNB2; cyclin B2 [KO:K21770]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
5111  PCNA; proliferating cell nuclear antigen [KO:K04802]
5424  POLD1; DNA polymerase delta 1, catalytic subunit [KO:K02327] [EC:]
5425  POLD2; DNA polymerase delta 2, accessory subunit [KO:K02328]
10714  POLD3; DNA polymerase delta 3, accessory subunit [KO:K03504]
57804  POLD4; DNA polymerase delta 4, accessory subunit [KO:K03505]
5426  POLE; DNA polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit [KO:K02324] [EC:]
5427  POLE2; DNA polymerase epsilon 2, accessory subunit [KO:K02325] [EC:]
54107  POLE3; DNA polymerase epsilon 3, accessory subunit [KO:K02326] [EC:]
56655  POLE4; DNA polymerase epsilon 4, accessory subunit [KO:K03506] [EC:]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
896  CCND3; cyclin D3 [KO:K10152]
1019  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
1869  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
1029  CDKN2A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [KO:K06621]
1030  CDKN2B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B [KO:K04685]
7471  WNT1; Wnt family member 1 [KO:K03209]
7472  WNT2; Wnt family member 2 [KO:K00182]
7482  WNT2B; Wnt family member 2B [KO:K00182]
7473  WNT3; Wnt family member 3 [KO:K00312]
89780  WNT3A; Wnt family member 3A [KO:K00312]
54361  WNT4; Wnt family member 4 [KO:K00408]
7474  WNT5A; Wnt family member 5A [KO:K00444]
81029  WNT5B; Wnt family member 5B [KO:K00444]
7475  WNT6; Wnt family member 6 [KO:K00445]
7476  WNT7A; Wnt family member 7A [KO:K00572]
7477  WNT7B; Wnt family member 7B [KO:K00572]
7478  WNT8A; Wnt family member 8A [KO:K00714]
7479  WNT8B; Wnt family member 8B [KO:K00714]
7483  WNT9A; Wnt family member 9A [KO:K01064]
7484  WNT9B; Wnt family member 9B [KO:K01064]
7480  WNT10B; Wnt family member 10B [KO:K01357]
80326  WNT10A; Wnt family member 10A [KO:K01357]
7481  WNT11; Wnt family member 11 [KO:K01384]
51384  WNT16; Wnt family member 16 [KO:K01558]
8321  FZD1; frizzled class receptor 1 [KO:K02432]
8324  FZD7; frizzled class receptor 7 [KO:K02432]
2535  FZD2; frizzled class receptor 2 [KO:K02235]
7976  FZD3; frizzled class receptor 3 [KO:K02329]
8322  FZD4; frizzled class receptor 4 [KO:K02354]
7855  FZD5; frizzled class receptor 5 [KO:K02375]
8325  FZD8; frizzled class receptor 8 [KO:K02375]
8323  FZD6; frizzled class receptor 6 [KO:K02376]
11211  FZD10; frizzled class receptor 10 [KO:K02842]
8326  FZD9; frizzled class receptor 9 [KO:K02842]
1857  DVL3; dishevelled segment polarity protein 3 [KO:K02353]
1856  DVL2; dishevelled segment polarity protein 2 [KO:K02353]
1855  DVL1; dishevelled segment polarity protein 1 [KO:K02353]
2932  GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:]
1499  CTNNB1; catenin beta 1 [KO:K02105]
324  APC; APC, WNT signaling pathway regulator [KO:K02085]
10297  APC2; APC2, WNT signaling pathway regulator [KO:K02085]
1739  DLG1; discs large MAGUK scaffold protein 1 [KO:K12076]
5154  PDGFA; platelet derived growth factor subunit A [KO:K04359]
5155  PDGFB; platelet derived growth factor subunit B [KO:K17386]
5156  PDGFRA; platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha [KO:K04363] [EC:]
5159  PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta [KO:K05089] [EC:]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
7124  TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
7132  TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A [KO:K03158]
4214  MAP3K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04416] [EC:]
6416  MAP2K4; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 [KO:K04430] [EC:]
3725  JUN; Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04448]
2874  GPS2; G protein pathway suppressor 2 [KO:K15307]
3554  IL1R1; interleukin 1 receptor type 1 [KO:K04386]
7850  IL1R2; interleukin 1 receptor type 2 [KO:K04387]
4215  MAP3K3; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 [KO:K04421] [EC:]
1147  CHUK; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:]
3551  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
4792  NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha [KO:K04734]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
4055  LTBR; lymphotoxin beta receptor [KO:K03159]
958  CD40; CD40 molecule [KO:K03160]
115650  TNFRSF13C; TNF receptor superfamily member 13C [KO:K05151]
9020  MAP3K14; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14 [KO:K04466] [EC:]
5971  RELB; RELB proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K09253]
4791  NFKB2; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 2 [KO:K04469]
3558  IL2; interleukin 2 [KO:K05429]
3559  IL2RA; interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha [KO:K05068]
3600  IL15; interleukin 15 [KO:K05433]
3601  IL15RA; interleukin 15 receptor subunit alpha [KO:K05074]
3569  IL6; interleukin 6 [KO:K05405]
1437  CSF2; colony stimulating factor 2 [KO:K05427]
4049  LTA; lymphotoxin alpha [KO:K05468]
598  BCL2L1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
331  XIAP; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis [KO:K04725] [EC:]
7538  ZFP36; ZFP36 ring finger protein [KO:K15308]
4801  NFYB; nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta [KO:K08065]
3108  HLA-DMA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha [KO:K06752]
3109  HLA-DMB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta [KO:K06752]
3111  HLA-DOA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO alpha [KO:K06752]
3112  HLA-DOB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta [KO:K06752]
3113  HLA-DPA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
3115  HLA-DPB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3117  HLA-DQA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
3118  HLA-DQA2; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2 [KO:K06752]
3119  HLA-DQB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3122  HLA-DRA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha [KO:K06752]
3123  HLA-DRB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3125  HLA-DRB3; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 3 [KO:K06752]
3126  HLA-DRB4; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 4 [KO:K06752]
3127  HLA-DRB5; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5 [KO:K06752]
6722  SRF; serum response factor [KO:K04378]
2005  ELK4; ELK4, ETS transcription factor [KO:K04376]
2002  ELK1; ELK1, ETS transcription factor [KO:K04375]
6688  SPI1; Spi-1 proto-oncogene [KO:K09438]
2113  ETS1; ETS proto-oncogene 1, transcription factor [KO:K02678]
2114  ETS2; ETS proto-oncogene 2, transcription factor [KO:K21932]
387332  TBPL2; TATA-box binding protein like 2 [KO:K03120]
9519  TBPL1; TATA-box binding protein like 1 [KO:K03120]
6908  TBP; TATA-box binding protein [KO:K03120]
2353  FOS; Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04379]
1958  EGR1; early growth response 1 [KO:K09203]
1959  EGR2; early growth response 2 [KO:K12496]
8061  FOSL1; FOS like 1, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04502]
107  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:]
108  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:]
109  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:]
196883  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:]
111  ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:]
112  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:]
113  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:]
114  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:]
115  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:]
1385  CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
1390  CREM; cAMP responsive element modulator [KO:K09052]
466  ATF1; activating transcription factor 1 [KO:K09053]
1386  ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
467  ATF3; activating transcription factor 3 [KO:K09032]
468  ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
7494  XBP1; X-box binding protein 1 [KO:K09027]
23373  CRTC1; CREB regulated transcription coactivator 1 [KO:K15309]
200186  CRTC2; CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 [KO:K16333]
64784  CRTC3; CREB regulated transcription coactivator 3 [KO:K16334]
1387  CREBBP; CREB binding protein [KO:K04498] [EC:]
2033  EP300; E1A binding protein p300 [KO:K04498] [EC:]
8850  KAT2B; lysine acetyltransferase 2B [KO:K06062] [EC:]
2648  KAT2A; lysine acetyltransferase 2A [KO:K06062] [EC:]
6929  TCF3; transcription factor 3 [KO:K09063]
5423  POLB; DNA polymerase beta [KO:K02330] [EC:4.2.99.-]
1031  CDKN2C; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C [KO:K06622]
3932  LCK; LCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase [KO:K05856] [EC:]
7015  TERT; telomerase reverse transcriptase [KO:K11126] [EC:]
4602  MYB; MYB proto-oncogene, transcription factor [KO:K09420]
4605  MYBL2; MYB proto-oncogene like 2 [KO:K21769]
7046  TGFBR1; transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 [KO:K04674] [EC:]
7048  TGFBR2; transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 [KO:K04388] [EC:]
4087  SMAD2; SMAD family member 2 [KO:K04500]
4088  SMAD3; SMAD family member 3 [KO:K04500]
4089  SMAD4; SMAD family member 4 [KO:K04501]
472  ATM; ATM serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04728] [EC:]
545  ATR; ATR serine/threonine kinase [KO:K06640] [EC:]
1111  CHEK1; checkpoint kinase 1 [KO:K02216] [EC:]
11200  CHEK2; checkpoint kinase 2 [KO:K06641] [EC:]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
94241  TP53INP1; tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1 [KO:K15310]
4487  MSX1; msh homeobox 1 [KO:K09341]
4488  MSX2; msh homeobox 2 [KO:K09341]
5599  MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
C00027  Hydrogen peroxide
C00076  Calcium cation
C00238  Potassium cation
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C18994  Accessory protein p12I
C18995  P13 protein
C18996  Accessory protein p30II
C19313  HTLV-1 basic zipper factor
Yoshida M
Multiple viral strategies of HTLV-1 for dysregulation of cell growth control.
Annu Rev Immunol 19:475-96 (2001)
Gatza ML, Watt JC, Marriott SJ
Cellular transformation by the HTLV-I Tax protein, a jack-of-all-trades.
Oncogene 22:5141-9 (2003)
Ghez D, Lepelletier Y, Jones KS, Pique C, Hermine O
Current concepts regarding the HTLV-1 receptor complex.
Retrovirology 7:99 (2010)
Boxus M, Willems L
Mechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence and transformation.
Br J Cancer 101:1497-501 (2009)
Matsuoka M, Jeang KT
Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation.
Nat Rev Cancer 7:270-80 (2007)
Yasunaga J, Matsuoka M
[HTLV-I and leukemogenesis].
Uirusu 56:241-9 (2006)
Boxus M, Twizere JC, Legros S, Dewulf JF, Kettmann R, Willems L
The HTLV-1 Tax interactome.
Retrovirology 5:76 (2008)
Harhaj EW, Harhaj NS
Mechanisms of persistent NF-kappaB activation by HTLV-I tax.
IUBMB Life 57:83-91 (2005)
Peloponese JM Jr, Jeang KT
Role for Akt/protein kinase B and activator protein-1 in cellular proliferation induced by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax oncoprotein.
J Biol Chem 281:8927-38 (2006)
Marriott SJ, Semmes OJ
Impact of HTLV-I Tax on cell cycle progression and the cellular DNA damage repair response.
Oncogene 24:5986-95 (2005)
Jeang KT
Functional activities of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax oncoprotein: cellular signaling through NF-kappa B.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 12:207-17 (2001)
Bouzar AB, Willems L
How HTLV-1 may subvert miRNAs for persistence and transformation.
Retrovirology 5:101 (2008)
Sun SC, Yamaoka S
Activation of NF-kappaB by HTLV-I and implications for cell transformation.
Oncogene 24:5952-64 (2005)
Manel N, Battini JL, Taylor N, Sitbon M
HTLV-1 tropism and envelope receptor.
Oncogene 24:6016-25 (2005)
Sun SC, Ballard DW
Persistent activation of NF-kappaB by the tax transforming protein of HTLV-1: hijacking cellular IkappaB kinases.
Oncogene 18:6948-58 (1999)
Taylor GP, Matsuoka M
Natural history of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and approaches to therapy.
Oncogene 24:6047-57 (2005)
Franchini G, Fukumoto R, Fullen JR
T-cell control by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1.
Int J Hematol 78:280-96 (2003)
Baydoun HH, Bellon M, Nicot C
HTLV-1 Yin and Yang: Rex and p30 master regulators of viral mRNA trafficking.
AIDS Rev 10:195-204 (2008)
Jin DY, Teramoto H, Giam CZ, Chun RF, Gutkind JS, Jeang KT
A human suppressor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha.
J Biol Chem 272:25816-23 (1997)
Pise-Masison CA, Brady JN
Setting the stage for transformation: HTLV-1 Tax inhibition of p53 function.
Front Biosci 10:919-30 (2005)
KO pathway

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