KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05224Help
Entry
hsa05224                    Pathway                                

Name
Breast cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone subtypes) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), include: hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative (luminal A subtype), hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive (luminal B subtype), hormone receptor negative and HER2 positive (HER2 positive), and hormone receptor negative and HER2 negative (basal-like or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)). Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are largely driven by the estrogen/ER pathway. In HER2 positive breast tumours, HER2 activates the PI3K/AKT and the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, and stimulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. In patients suffering from TNBC, the deregulation of various signalling pathways (Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin), EGFR protein have been confirmed. In the case of breast cancer only 8% of all cancers are hereditary, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa05224  Breast cancer
hsa05224

Ortholog table
Network
N00020  Amplified FGFR to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00022  ERBB2-overexpression to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00034  ERBB2-overexpression to PI3K signaling pathway
N00038  Amplified FGFR to PI3K signaling pathway
N00041  EGFR-overexpression to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00042  EGFR-overexpression to PI3K signaling pathway
N00049  Mutation-activated PI3K to PI3K signaling pathway
N00050  Amplified PI3K to PI3K signaling pathway
N00052  Mutation-inactivated PTEN to PI3K signaling pathway
N00059  FZD7-overexpression to Wnt signaling pathway
N00060  LRP6-overexpression to Wnt signaling pathway
N00087  NOTCH-overexpression to Notch signaling pathway
N00115  Mutation-inactivated TP53 to transcription
N00275  Amplified CCND1 to cell cycle G1/S
N00287  ESR1-positive to nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling pathway
 » show all
Disease
H00031  Breast cancer
Drug
D00554  Ethinyl estradiol (USP)
D00951  Medroxyprogesterone acetate (JP17/USP)
D00966  Tamoxifen citrate (JP17/USP)
D00967  Toremifene citrate (JAN/USAN)
D01161  Fulvestrant (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01602  Mepitiostane (JP17/INN)
D02714  Everolimus (JAN/USAN/INN)
D03257  Trastuzumab (INN)
D04024  Lapatinib ditosylate (USAN)
D05446  Pertuzumab (USAN/INN)
D08108  Lapatinib (INN)
D08950  Neratinib (USAN/INN)
D09980  Trastuzumab emtansine (USAN/INN)
D10372  Palbociclib (JAN/USAN)
D10652  Palbociclib isethionate (USAN)
D10883  Ribociclib (USAN/INN)
D10898  Neratinib maleate
D10979  Ribociclib succinate (USAN)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
2099  ESR1; estrogen receptor 1 [KO:K08550]
2100  ESR2; estrogen receptor 2 [KO:K08551]
8648  NCOA1; nuclear receptor coactivator 1 [KO:K09101] [EC:2.3.1.48]
8202  NCOA3; nuclear receptor coactivator 3 [KO:K11256] [EC:2.3.1.48]
2353  FOS; Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04379]
3725  JUN; Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04448]
6667  SP1; Sp1 transcription factor [KO:K04684]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
4609  MYC; MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [KO:K04377]
5241  PGR; progesterone receptor [KO:K08556]
7471  WNT1; Wnt family member 1 [KO:K03209]
54361  WNT4; Wnt family member 4 [KO:K00408]
8600  TNFSF11; TNF superfamily member 11 [KO:K05473]
2064  ERBB2; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05083] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2246  FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 [KO:K18496]
2247  FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 [KO:K18497]
2248  FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3 [KO:K04358]
2249  FGF4; fibroblast growth factor 4 [KO:K04358]
8822  FGF17; fibroblast growth factor 17 [KO:K04358]
2251  FGF6; fibroblast growth factor 6 [KO:K04358]
2252  FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7 [KO:K04358]
2253  FGF8; fibroblast growth factor 8 [KO:K04358]
2254  FGF9; fibroblast growth factor 9 [KO:K04358]
2255  FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10 [KO:K04358]
8823  FGF16; fibroblast growth factor 16 [KO:K04358]
2250  FGF5; fibroblast growth factor 5 [KO:K04358]
8817  FGF18; fibroblast growth factor 18 [KO:K04358]
26281  FGF20; fibroblast growth factor 20 [KO:K04358]
27006  FGF22; fibroblast growth factor 22 [KO:K04358]
9965  FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19 [KO:K22603]
26291  FGF21; fibroblast growth factor 21 [KO:K22429]
8074  FGF23; fibroblast growth factor 23 [KO:K22428]
2260  FGFR1; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [KO:K04362] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3479  IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 [KO:K05459]
3480  IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1950  EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
1956  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3815  KIT; KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05091] [EC:2.7.10.1]
6464  SHC1; SHC adaptor protein 1 [KO:K06279]
25759  SHC2; SHC adaptor protein 2 [KO:K17447]
53358  SHC3; SHC adaptor protein 3 [KO:K17448]
399694  SHC4; SHC adaptor protein 4 [KO:K17449]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
6654  SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
369  ARAF; A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:2.7.11.1]
673  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
5728  PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
2475  MTOR; mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6198  RPS6KB1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6199  RPS6KB2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B2 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
182  JAG1; jagged 1 [KO:K06052]
3714  JAG2; jagged 2 [KO:K21635]
10683  DLL3; delta like canonical Notch ligand 3 [KO:K06051]
28514  DLL1; delta like canonical Notch ligand 1 [KO:K06051]
54567  DLL4; delta like canonical Notch ligand 4 [KO:K06051]
4851  NOTCH1; notch 1 [KO:K02599]
4853  NOTCH2; notch 2 [KO:K20994]
4854  NOTCH3; notch 3 [KO:K20995]
4855  NOTCH4; notch 4 [KO:K20996]
3280  HES1; hes family bHLH transcription factor 1 [KO:K06054]
388585  HES5; hes family bHLH transcription factor 5 [KO:K06055]
26508  HEYL; hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif-like [KO:K09091]
23462  HEY1; hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1 [KO:K09091]
23493  HEY2; hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 2 [KO:K09091]
2324  FLT4; fms related tyrosine kinase 4 [KO:K05097] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
4791  NFKB2; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 2 [KO:K04469]
7472  WNT2; Wnt family member 2 [KO:K00182]
7482  WNT2B; Wnt family member 2B [KO:K00182]
7473  WNT3; Wnt family member 3 [KO:K00312]
89780  WNT3A; Wnt family member 3A [KO:K00312]
7474  WNT5A; Wnt family member 5A [KO:K00444]
81029  WNT5B; Wnt family member 5B [KO:K00444]
7475  WNT6; Wnt family member 6 [KO:K00445]
7476  WNT7A; Wnt family member 7A [KO:K00572]
7477  WNT7B; Wnt family member 7B [KO:K00572]
7478  WNT8A; Wnt family member 8A [KO:K00714]
7479  WNT8B; Wnt family member 8B [KO:K00714]
7483  WNT9A; Wnt family member 9A [KO:K01064]
7484  WNT9B; Wnt family member 9B [KO:K01064]
7480  WNT10B; Wnt family member 10B [KO:K01357]
80326  WNT10A; Wnt family member 10A [KO:K01357]
7481  WNT11; Wnt family member 11 [KO:K01384]
51384  WNT16; Wnt family member 16 [KO:K01558]
8321  FZD1; frizzled class receptor 1 [KO:K02432]
8324  FZD7; frizzled class receptor 7 [KO:K02432]
2535  FZD2; frizzled class receptor 2 [KO:K02235]
7976  FZD3; frizzled class receptor 3 [KO:K02329]
8322  FZD4; frizzled class receptor 4 [KO:K02354]
7855  FZD5; frizzled class receptor 5 [KO:K02375]
8325  FZD8; frizzled class receptor 8 [KO:K02375]
8323  FZD6; frizzled class receptor 6 [KO:K02376]
11211  FZD10; frizzled class receptor 10 [KO:K02842]
8326  FZD9; frizzled class receptor 9 [KO:K02842]
4041  LRP5; LDL receptor related protein 5 [KO:K03068]
4040  LRP6; LDL receptor related protein 6 [KO:K03068]
1857  DVL3; dishevelled segment polarity protein 3 [KO:K02353]
1856  DVL2; dishevelled segment polarity protein 2 [KO:K02353]
1855  DVL1; dishevelled segment polarity protein 1 [KO:K02353]
10023  FRAT1; FRAT1, WNT signaling pathway regulator [KO:K03069]
23401  FRAT2; FRAT2, WNT signaling pathway regulator [KO:K03096]
2932  GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
8312  AXIN1; axin 1 [KO:K02157]
8313  AXIN2; axin 2 [KO:K04385]
324  APC; APC, WNT signaling pathway regulator [KO:K02085]
10297  APC2; APC2, WNT signaling pathway regulator [KO:K02085]
1499  CTNNB1; catenin beta 1 [KO:K02105]
122011  CSNK1A1L; casein kinase 1 alpha 1 like [KO:K08957] [EC:2.7.11.1]
1452  CSNK1A1; casein kinase 1 alpha 1 [KO:K08957] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6932  TCF7; transcription factor 7 [KO:K02620]
83439  TCF7L1; transcription factor 7 like 1 [KO:K04490]
6934  TCF7L2; transcription factor 7 like 2 [KO:K04491]
51176  LEF1; lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 [KO:K04492]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
1647  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [KO:K04402]
4616  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta [KO:K04402]
10912  GADD45G; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma [KO:K04402]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
578  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
1643  DDB2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
51426  POLK; DNA polymerase kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
1019  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1021  CDK6; cyclin dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
1869  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
672  BRCA1; BRCA1, DNA repair associated [KO:K10605] [EC:2.3.2.27]
675  BRCA2; BRCA2, DNA repair associated [KO:K08775]
Compound
C00410  Progesterone
C00951  Estradiol-17beta
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Zhang MH, Man HT, Zhao XD, Dong N, Ma SL
  Title
Estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer molecular signatures and therapeutic potentials (Review).
  Journal
Biomed Rep 2:41-52 (2014)
DOI:10.3892/br.2013.187
Reference
  Authors
Dai X, Xiang L, Li T, Bai Z
  Title
Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.
  Journal
J Cancer 7:1281-94 (2016)
DOI:10.7150/jca.13141
Reference
  Authors
Schnitt SJ
  Title
Classification and prognosis of invasive breast cancer: from morphology to molecular taxonomy.
  Journal
Mod Pathol 23 Suppl 2:S60-4 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2010.33
Reference
  Authors
  Title
Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
  Journal
Nature 490:61-70 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nature11412
Reference
  Authors
Eroles P, Bosch A, Perez-Fidalgo JA, Lluch A
  Title
Molecular biology in breast cancer: intrinsic subtypes and signaling pathways.
  Journal
Cancer Treat Rev 38:698-707 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2011.11.005
Reference
  Authors
Karamouzis MV, Papavassiliou KA, Adamopoulos C, Papavassiliou AG.
  Title
Targeting androgen/estrogen receptors crosstalk in cancer
  Journal
Trends in Cancer 2(1):35-48 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.trecan.2015.12.001
Reference
  Authors
Sharp A, Harper-Wynne C.
  Title
Treatment of advanced breast cancer (ABC): the expanding landscape of targeted therapies
  Journal
J Cancer Biol Res 2(1):1036 (2014)
Reference
  Authors
Byler S, Goldgar S, Heerboth S, Leary M, Housman G, Moulton K, Sarkar S
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic aspects of breast cancer progression and therapy.
  Journal
Anticancer Res 34:1071-7 (2014)
Reference
  Authors
Mohamed A, Krajewski K, Cakar B, Ma CX
  Title
Targeted therapy for breast cancer.
  Journal
Am J Pathol 183:1096-112 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.07.005
Reference
  Authors
Ellis MJ, Ding L, Shen D, Luo J, Suman VJ, Wallis JW, Van Tine BA, Hoog J, Goiffon RJ, Goldstein TC, Ng S, Lin L, Crowder R, Snider J, Ballman K, Weber J, Chen K, Koboldt DC, Kandoth C, Schierding WS, McMichael JF, Miller CA, Lu C, Harris CC, McLellan MD, Wendl MC, DeSchryver K, Allred DC, Esserman L, Unzeitig G, Margenthaler J, Babiera GV, Marcom PK, Guenther JM, Leitch M, Hunt K, Olson J, Tao Y, Maher CA, Fulton LL, Fulton RS, Harrison M, Oberkfell B, Du F, Demeter R, Vickery TL, Elhammali A, Piwnica-Worms H, McDonald S, Watson M, Dooling DJ, Ota D, Chang LW, Bose R, Ley TJ, Piwnica-Worms D, Stuart JM, Wilson RK, Mardis ER
  Title
Whole-genome analysis informs breast cancer response to aromatase inhibition.
  Journal
Nature 486:353-60 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nature11143
Reference
  Authors
Ma CX, Reinert T, Chmielewska I, Ellis MJ
  Title
Mechanisms of aromatase inhibitor resistance.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 15:261-75 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3920
Reference
  Authors
Butt AJ, McNeil CM, Musgrove EA, Sutherland RL
  Title
Downstream targets of growth factor and oestrogen signalling and endocrine resistance: the potential roles of c-Myc, cyclin D1 and cyclin E.
  Journal
Endocr Relat Cancer 12 Suppl 1:S47-59 (2005)
DOI:10.1677/erc.1.00993
Reference
  Authors
Dasgupta S, Lonard DM, O'Malley BW
  Title
Nuclear receptor coactivators: master regulators of human health and disease.
  Journal
Annu Rev Med 65:279-92 (2014)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-med-051812-145316
Reference
  Authors
Brisken C
  Title
Progesterone signalling in breast cancer: a neglected hormone coming into the limelight.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 13:385-96 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3518
Reference
  Authors
Scarpin KM, Graham JD, Mote PA, Clarke CL
  Title
Progesterone action in human tissues: regulation by progesterone receptor (PR) isoform expression, nuclear positioning and coregulator expression.
  Journal
Nucl Recept Signal 7:e009 (2009)
DOI:10.1621/nrs.07009
Reference
  Authors
Knutson TP, Lange CA
  Title
Tracking progesterone receptor-mediated actions in breast cancer.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 142:114-25 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.11.010
Reference
  Authors
Dittrich A, Gautrey H, Browell D, Tyson-Capper A
  Title
The HER2 Signaling Network in Breast Cancer--Like a Spider in its Web.
  Journal
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 19:253-70 (2014)
DOI:10.1007/s10911-014-9329-5
Reference
  Authors
Higgins MJ, Baselga J
  Title
Targeted therapies for breast cancer.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 121:3797-803 (2011)
DOI:10.1172/JCI57152
Reference
  Authors
Mukohara T
  Title
PI3K mutations in breast cancer: prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  Journal
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 7:111-23 (2015)
DOI:10.2147/BCTT.S60696
Reference
  Authors
Schneider BP, Winer EP, Foulkes WD, Garber J, Perou CM, Richardson A, Sledge GW, Carey LA
  Title
Triple-negative breast cancer: risk factors to potential targets.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 14:8010-8 (2008)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1208
Reference
  Authors
King TD, Suto MJ, Li Y
  Title
The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway: a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer.
  Journal
J Cell Biochem 113:13-8 (2012)
DOI:10.1002/jcb.23350
Reference
  Authors
Brown AM
  Title
Wnt signaling in breast cancer: have we come full circle?
  Journal
Breast Cancer Res 3:351-5 (2001)
DOI:10.1186/bcr321
Reference
  Authors
Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Savage K, Arnedos M, Lambros MB, MacKay A, Natrajan R, Reis-Filho JS
  Title
beta-Catenin pathway activation in breast cancer is associated with triple-negative phenotype but not with CTNNB1 mutation.
  Journal
Mod Pathol 24:209-31 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2010.205
Reference
  Authors
Al-Hussaini H, Subramanyam D, Reedijk M, Sridhar SS
  Title
Notch signaling pathway as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.
  Journal
Mol Cancer Ther 10:9-15 (2011)
DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0677
Reference
  Authors
Rangel MC, Bertolette D, Castro NP, Klauzinska M, Cuttitta F, Salomon DS
  Title
Developmental signaling pathways regulating mammary stem cells and contributing to the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer.
  Journal
Breast Cancer Res Treat 156:211-26 (2016)
DOI:10.1007/s10549-016-3746-7
Reference
  Authors
Jamdade VS, Sethi N, Mundhe NA, Kumar P, Lahkar M, Sinha N
  Title
Therapeutic targets of triple-negative breast cancer: a review.
  Journal
Br J Pharmacol 172:4228-37 (2015)
DOI:10.1111/bph.13211
Reference
  Authors
Karamboulas C, Ailles L
  Title
Developmental signaling pathways in cancer stem cells of solid tumors.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:2481-95 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.11.008
Reference
  Authors
Ignatiadis M, Sotiriou C
  Title
Luminal breast cancer: from biology to treatment.
  Journal
Nat Rev Clin Oncol 10:494-506 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrclinonc.2013.124
Reference
  Authors
Shin SJ, Gong G, Lee HJ, Kang J, Bae YK, Lee A, Cho EY, Lee JS, Suh KS, Lee DW, Jung WH
  Title
Positive expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor is associated with a positive hormone receptor status and a favorable prognosis in breast cancer.
  Journal
J Breast Cancer 17:113-20 (2014)
DOI:10.4048/jbc.2014.17.2.113
Reference
  Authors
Gasco M, Shami S, Crook T
  Title
The p53 pathway in breast cancer.
  Journal
Breast Cancer Res 4:70-6 (2002)
DOI:10.1186/bcr426
Reference
  Authors
Narod SA, Foulkes WD
  Title
BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and beyond.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:665-76 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1431
KO pathway
ko05224   

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