KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04136Help
Entry
ko04136                     Pathway                                

Name
Autophagy - other
Description
Autophagy is a degradative pathway for the removal of cytoplasmic materials in eukaryotic cells, and is characterized by the formation of a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome, either in a housekeeping capacity or during stress and senescence. The process of autophagy could be divided into several stages: induction, vesicle nucleation, elongation and closure, and fusion and digestion. Most essential autophagic machineries are conserved throughout eukaryotes (see map04140 for animals and map04138 for fungi). This map is for other eukaryotes including plants and protists, where autophagy related genes (ATGs) play similar roles in the life cycle. However, autophagy has been relatively less studied in lower eukaryotes.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko04136  Autophagy - other
ko04136

Ortholog table
Other DBs
GO: 0006914
Orthology
K07204  regulatory associated protein of mTOR
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:2.7.11.1]
K08266  target of rapamycin complex subunit LST8
K08269  serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K08331  autophagy-related protein 13
K19730  autophagy-related protein 101
K08330  autophagy-related protein 11
K17606  immunoglobulin-binding protein 1
K04382  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit [EC:3.1.3.16]
K17907  autophagy-related protein 9
K17906  autophagy-related protein 2
K17908  autophagy-related protein 18
K08334  beclin
K00914  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [EC:2.7.1.137]
K08333  phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K08336  ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
K08339  autophagy-related protein 5
K17890  autophagy-related protein 16-1
K08337  ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7
K17888  ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG10
K08343  ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3
K08341  GABA(A) receptor-associated protein
K08342  cysteine protease ATG4 [EC:3.4.22.-]
Compound
C00350  Phosphatidylethanolamine
C01194  1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol
C04549  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
Reference
  Authors
Duszenko M, Ginger ML, Brennand A, Gualdron-Lopez M, Colombo MI, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Jayabalasingham B, Langsley G, de Castro SL, Menna-Barreto R, Mottram JC, Navarro M, Rigden DJ, Romano PS, Stoka V, Turk B, Michels PA
  Title
Autophagy in protists.
  Journal
Autophagy 7:127-58 (2011)
DOI:10.4161/auto.7.2.13310
Reference
  Authors
Avin-Wittenberg T, Honig A, Galili G
  Title
Variations on a theme: plant autophagy in comparison to yeast and mammals.
  Journal
Protoplasma 249:285-99 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/s00709-011-0296-z
Reference
  Authors
Liu Y, Bassham DC
  Title
Autophagy: pathways for self-eating in plant cells.
  Journal
Annu Rev Plant Biol 63:215-37 (2012)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-arplant-042811-105441
Reference
  Authors
Yoshimoto K
  Title
Beginning to understand autophagy, an intracellular self-degradation system in plants.
  Journal
Plant Cell Physiol 53:1355-65 (2012)
DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcs099
Reference
  Authors
Li F, Chung T, Vierstra RD
  Title
AUTOPHAGY-RELATED11 plays a critical role in general autophagy- and senescence-induced mitophagy in Arabidopsis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 26:788-807 (2014)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.113.120014
Reference
  Authors
Michaeli S, Galili G, Genschik P, Fernie AR, Avin-Wittenberg T
  Title
Autophagy in Plants--What's New on the Menu?
  Journal
Trends Plant Sci 21:134-44 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.tplants.2015.10.008
Reference
  Authors
Yang X, Bassham DC
  Title
New Insight into the Mechanism and Function of Autophagy in Plant Cells.
  Journal
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 320:1-40 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/bs.ircmb.2015.07.005

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