Autophagy - other
Autophagy is a degradative pathway for the removal of cytoplasmic materials in eukaryotic cells, and is characterized by the formation of a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome, either in a housekeeping capacity or during stress and senescence. The process of autophagy could be divided into several stages: induction, vesicle nucleation, elongation and closure, and fusion and digestion. Most essential autophagic machineries are conserved throughout eukaryotes (see
for animals and
for fungi). This map is for other eukaryotes including plants and protists, where autophagy related genes (ATGs) play similar roles in the life cycle. However, autophagy has been relatively less studied in lower eukaryotes.
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
Autophagy - other
regulatory associated protein of mTOR
serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:
target of rapamycin complex subunit LST8
serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2 [EC:
autophagy-related protein 13
autophagy-related protein 101
autophagy-related protein 11
immunoglobulin-binding protein 1
serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit [EC:
autophagy-related protein 9
autophagy-related protein 2
autophagy-related protein 18
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [EC:
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4 [EC:
ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
autophagy-related protein 5
autophagy-related protein 16-1
ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7
ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG10
ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3
GABA(A) receptor-associated protein
cysteine protease ATG4 [EC:3.4.22.-]
Duszenko M, Ginger ML, Brennand A, Gualdron-Lopez M, Colombo MI, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Jayabalasingham B, Langsley G, de Castro SL, Menna-Barreto R, Mottram JC, Navarro M, Rigden DJ, Romano PS, Stoka V, Turk B, Michels PA
Autophagy in protists.
Autophagy 7:127-58 (2011)
Avin-Wittenberg T, Honig A, Galili G
Variations on a theme: plant autophagy in comparison to yeast and mammals.
Protoplasma 249:285-99 (2012)
Liu Y, Bassham DC
Autophagy: pathways for self-eating in plant cells.
Annu Rev Plant Biol 63:215-37 (2012)
Beginning to understand autophagy, an intracellular self-degradation system in plants.
Plant Cell Physiol 53:1355-65 (2012)
Li F, Chung T, Vierstra RD
AUTOPHAGY-RELATED11 plays a critical role in general autophagy- and senescence-induced mitophagy in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell 26:788-807 (2014)
Michaeli S, Galili G, Genschik P, Fernie AR, Avin-Wittenberg T
Autophagy in Plants--What's New on the Menu?
Trends Plant Sci 21:134-44 (2016)
Yang X, Bassham DC
New Insight into the Mechanism and Function of Autophagy in Plant Cells.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 320:1-40 (2015)
KEGG ORTHOLOGY (23)
All databases (23)
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