KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04940
Entry
ko04940                     Pathway                                

Name
Type I diabetes mellitus
Description
Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and presented in a complex with MHC-II molecules on the surface of the APC. Then immunogenic signals from APC activate CD4+ T cells, predominantly of the Th1 subset. Antigen-activated Th1 cells produce IL-2 and IFNgamma. They activate macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and these effector cells may kill islet beta-cells by one or both of two types of mechanisms: (1) direct interactions of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells with a beta-cell autoantigen-MHC-I complex on the beta-cell, and (2) non-specific inflammatory mediators, such as free radicals/oxidants and cytokines (IL-1, TNFalpha, TNFbeta, IFNgamma).
Type I diabetes is a polygenic disease. One of the principle determining genetic factors in diabetes incidence is the inheritance of mutant MHC-II alleles. Another plausible candidate gene is the insulin gene.
Class
Human Diseases; Endocrine and metabolic disease
Pathway map
ko04940  Type I diabetes mellitus
ko04940

Disease
H00408  Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Orthology
K04526  insulin
K01580  glutamate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.15]
K07817  receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase N [EC:3.1.3.48]
K01294  carboxypeptidase E [EC:3.4.17.10]
K04077  chaperonin GroEL
K19863  islet cell auto antigen 1
K06752  MHC class II antigen
K05412  CD80 antigen
K05413  CD86 antigen
K06470  CD28 antigen
K05406  interleukin 12A
K05425  interleukin 12B
K05429  interleukin 2
K04687  interferon gamma
K06751  MHC class I antigen
K10784  T cell receptor alpha chain V region
K10785  T-cell receptor beta chain V region
K04389  tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6
K04390  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6
K07818  perforin 1
K01353  granzyme B [EC:3.4.21.79]
K05468  lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1)
K03156  tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K04383  interleukin 1 alpha
K04519  interleukin 1 beta
Compound
C00027  Hydrogen peroxide
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00704  Superoxide
Reference
PMID:9719467
  Authors
Rabinovitch A, Suarez-Pinzon WL.
  Title
Cytokines and their roles in pancreatic islet beta-cell destruction and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
  Journal
Biochem Pharmacol 55:1139-49 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(97)00492-9
Reference
  Authors
Cox NJ, Wapelhorst B, Morrison VA, Johnson L, Pinchuk L, Spielman RS, Todd JA, Concannon P
  Title
Seven regions of the genome show evidence of linkage to type 1 diabetes in a consensus analysis of 767 multiplex families.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 69:820-30 (2001)
DOI:10.1086/323501
Reference
PMID:8072542
  Authors
Davies JL, Kawaguchi Y, Bennett ST, Copeman JB, Cordell HJ, Pritchard LE, Reed PW, Gough SC, Jenkins SC, Palmer SM, et al.
  Title
A genome-wide search for human type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes.
  Journal
Nature 371:130-6 (1994)
DOI:10.1038/371130a0
Reference
PMID:8786033
  Authors
Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Yamato E, Takekawa K, Nakagawa Y, Hamada Y, Ueda H, Shima K, Ogihara T.
  Title
Class I HLA is associated with age-at-onset of IDDM, while class II HLA confers susceptibility to IDDM.
  Journal
Diabetologia 38:1493-5 (1995)
DOI:10.1007/BF00400620
Reference
  Authors
Jaeckel E, Klein L, Martin-Orozco N, von Boehmer H.
  Title
Normal incidence of diabetes in NOD mice tolerant to glutamic acid decarboxylase.
  Journal
J Exp Med 197:1635-44 (2003)
DOI:10.1084/jem.20030215
Reference
  Authors
Nakayama M, Abiru N, Moriyama H, Babaya N, Liu E, Miao D, Yu L, Wegmann DR, Hutton JC, Elliott JF, Eisenbarth GS.
  Title
Prime role for an insulin epitope in the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.
  Journal
Nature 435:220-3 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nature03523
Reference
  Authors
Kent SC, Chen Y, Bregoli L, Clemmings SM, Kenyon NS, Ricordi C, Hering BJ, Hafler DA.
  Title
Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope.
  Journal
Nature 435:224-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nature03625
Reference
  Authors
Lieberman SM, DiLorenzo TP.
  Title
A comprehensive guide to antibody and T-cell responses in type 1 diabetes.
  Journal
Tissue Antigens 62:359-77 (2003)
DOI:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00152.x
Reference
  Authors
Lord SJ, Rajotte RV, Korbutt GS, Bleackley RC.
  Title
Granzyme B: a natural born killer.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 193:31-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2003.00044.x
Related
pathway
ko04210  Apoptosis
ko04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway

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