KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05330
Entry
ko05330                     Pathway                                

Name
Allograft rejection
Description
Allograft rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. In the direct pathway, recipient T cells react to intact allogeneic MHC molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. This pathway would activate host CD4 or CD8 T cells. In contrast, donor MHC molecules (and all other proteins) shed from the graft can be taken up by host APCs and presented to recipient T cells in the context of self-MHC molecules - the indirect pathway. Such presentation activates predominantly CD4 T cells. A direct cytotoxic T-cell attack on graft cells can be made only by T cells that recognize the graft MHC molecules directly. Nontheless, T cells with indirect allospecificity can contribute to graft rejection by activating macrophages, which cause tissue injury and fibrosis, and are also likely to be important in the development of an alloantibody response to graft.
Class
Human Diseases; Immune disease
Pathway map
ko05330  Allograft rejection
ko05330

Disease
H00083  Allograft rejection
Orthology
K06751  MHC class I antigen
K10784  T cell receptor alpha chain V region
K10785  T-cell receptor beta chain V region
K05412  CD80 antigen
K05413  CD86 antigen
K06470  CD28 antigen
K05406  interleukin 12A
K05425  interleukin 12B
K04389  tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6
K04390  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6
K07818  perforin 1
K01353  granzyme B [EC:3.4.21.79]
K06752  MHC class II antigen
K05429  interleukin 2
K03161  tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5
K03160  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5
K04687  interferon gamma
K03156  tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K05430  interleukin 4
K05428  interleukin 5
K05443  interleukin 10
K06856  immunoglobulin heavy chain
Compound
C00533  Nitric oxide
Reference
  Authors
Arakelov A, Lakkis FG.
  Title
The alloimmune response and effector mechanisms of allograft rejection.
  Journal
Semin Nephrol 20:95-102 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Le Moine A, Goldman M, Abramowicz D.
  Title
Multiple pathways to allograft rejection.
  Journal
Transplantation 73:1373-81 (2002)
DOI:10.1097/00007890-200205150-00001
Reference
  Authors
Trivedi HL.
  Title
Immunobiology of rejection and adaptation.
  Journal
Transplant Proc 39:647-52 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.01.047
Reference
  Authors
Pietra BA.
  Title
Transplantation immunology 2003: simplified approach.
  Journal
Pediatr Clin North Am 50:1233-59 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0031-3955(03)00119-6
Reference
PMID:8835634
  Authors
Oka T, Yoshimura N.
  Title
Immunosuppression in organ transplantation.
  Journal
Jpn J Pharmacol 71:89-100 (1996)
DOI:10.1254/jjp.71.89
Reference
  Authors
Sayegh MH.
  Title
Why do we reject a graft? Role of indirect allorecognition in graft rejection.
  Journal
Kidney Int 56:1967-79 (1999)
DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00751.x
Reference
  Authors
Benichou G.
  Title
Direct and indirect antigen recognition: the pathways to allograft immune rejection.
  Journal
Front Biosci 4:D476-80 (1999)
DOI:10.2741/benichou
Reference
  Authors
Turvey SE, Wood KJ.
  Title
Immunobiology of solid organ transplantation.
  Journal
Int Surg 84:279-90 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik MJ.
  Title
Immunobiology 6th edition
  Journal
Garland Science Publishing (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Game DS, Lechler RI.
  Title
Pathways of allorecognition: implications for transplantation tolerance.
  Journal
Transpl Immunol 10:101-8 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0966-3274(02)00055-2
Reference
  Authors
Lechler RI, Garden OA, Turka LA.
  Title
The complementary roles of deletion and regulation in transplantation tolerance.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 3:147-58 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nri1002
Related
pathway
ko04210  Apoptosis
ko04514  Cell adhesion molecules
ko04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
ko04612  Antigen processing and presentation
ko04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
ko04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway

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