KEGG   PATHWAY: map00900Help
Entry
map00900                    Pathway                                

Name
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Description
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil monoterpenes and linalyl acetate, some sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and carotenoids and phytol. The mevalonate pathway, operating in the cytosol, gives rise to triterpenes, sterols, and most sesquiterpenes.
Class
09100 Metabolism; 09109 Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map00900  Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
map00900

Ortholog table
Module
M00095  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate pathway [PATH:map00900]
M00096  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-mevalonate pathway [PATH:map00900]
M00364  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, bacteria [PATH:map00900]
M00365  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, archaea [PATH:map00900]
M00366  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, plants [PATH:map00900]
M00367  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-plant eukaryotes [PATH:map00900]
M00849  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate pathway, archaea [PATH:map00900]
Disease
H00206  Mevalonate kinase deficiency
H00527  Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
H00663  Restrictive dermopathy
H00999  Coenzyme Q10 deficiency
H01123  HMG-CoA synthase (HMGCS) deficiency
H01933  Porokeratosis
Other DBs
GO: 0009240 0016091
Reference
  Authors
Lange BM, Ghassemian M.
  Title
Genome organization in Arabidopsis thaliana: a survey for genes involved in isoprenoid and chlorophyll metabolism.
  Journal
Plant Mol Biol 51:925-48 (2003)
DOI:10.1023/A:1023005504702
Reference
  Authors
Saiki R, Nagata A, Kainou T, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M
  Title
Characterization of solanesyl and decaprenyl diphosphate synthases in mice and humans.
  Journal
FEBS J 272:5606-22 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04956.x
Reference
PMID:9858571
  Authors
Sato M, Sato K, Nishikawa S, Hirata A, Kato J, Nakano A
  Title
The yeast RER2 gene, identified by endoplasmic reticulum protein localization mutations, encodes cis-prenyltransferase, a key enzyme in dolichol synthesis.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 19:471-83 (1999)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.19.1.471
Reference
  Authors
Vannice JC, Skaff DA, Keightley A, Addo JK, Wyckoff GJ, Miziorko HM
  Title
Identification in Haloferax volcanii of phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase as catalysts of the terminal enzyme reactions in an  archaeal alternate mevalonate pathway.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 196:1055-63 (2014)
DOI:10.1128/JB.01230-13
KO pathway
ko00900   

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