KEGG   PATHWAY: map05145Help
Entry
map05145                    Pathway                                

Name
Toxoplasmosis
Description
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechanisms. During early infection, nuclear translocation of NFkB is temporally blocked and p38 MAPK phosphorylation is prevented, suppressing IL-12 production. Another pathway for IL-12 induction occurs through CCR5 dependent pathway, but parasitic induction of an eicosanoid LXA4 contributes to the downregulation of IL-12. Direct activation of STAT3 by the parasite enhance anti-inflammatory function of IL-10 and TGF beta. T. gondii can cause lifelong chronic infection by establishing an anti-apoptotic environment through induction of bcl-2 or IAPs and by redirecting LDL-mediated cholesterol transport to scavenge nutrients from the host.
Class
09160 Human Diseases; 09167 Infectious diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map05145  Toxoplasmosis
map05145

Ortholog table
Disease
H00435  Toxoplasmosis
Reference
  Authors
Denkers EY, Butcher BA
  Title
Sabotage and exploitation in macrophages parasitized by intracellular protozoans.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 21:35-41 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2004.10.004
Reference
  Authors
Denkers EY
  Title
From cells to signaling cascades: manipulation of innate immunity by Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 39:193-203 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00279-7
Reference
  Authors
Pollard AM, Knoll LJ, Mordue DG
  Title
The role of specific Toxoplasma gondii molecules in manipulation of innate immunity.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 25:491-4 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2009.07.009
Reference
  Authors
Leng J, Butcher BA, Denkers EY
  Title
Dysregulation of macrophage signal transduction by Toxoplasma gondii: past progress and recent advances.
  Journal
Parasite Immunol 31:717-28 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2009.01122.x
Reference
  Authors
Miller CM, Boulter NR, Ikin RJ, Smith NC
  Title
The immunobiology of the innate response to Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
Int J Parasitol 39:23-39 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2008.08.002
Reference
  Authors
Denkers EY, Kim L, Butcher BA
  Title
In the belly of the beast: subversion of macrophage proinflammatory signalling cascades during Toxoplasma gondii infection.
  Journal
Cell Microbiol 5:75-83 (2003)
DOI:10.1046/j.1462-5822.2003.00258.x
Reference
  Authors
Gazzinelli RT, Denkers EY
  Title
Protozoan encounters with Toll-like receptor signalling pathways: implications for host parasitism.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 6:895-906 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nri1978
Reference
  Authors
Lang C, Gross U, Luder CG
  Title
Subversion of innate and adaptive immune responses by Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
Parasitol Res 100:191-203 (2007)
DOI:10.1007/s00436-006-0306-9
Reference
  Authors
Blader IJ, Saeij JP
  Title
Communication between Toxoplasma gondii and its host: impact on parasite growth, development, immune evasion, and virulence.
  Journal
APMIS 117:458-76 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2009.02453.x
Reference
  Authors
Boothroyd JC, Dubremetz JF
  Title
Kiss and spit: the dual roles of Toxoplasma rhoptries.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 6:79-88 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro1800
Reference
  Authors
Denkers EY, Butcher BA, Del Rio L, Kim L
  Title
Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signaling cascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 201:191-205 (2004)
DOI:10.1111/j.0105-2896.2004.00180.x
Reference
  Authors
Yarovinsky F
  Title
Toll-like receptors and their role in host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
Immunol Lett 119:17-21 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2008.05.007
Reference
  Authors
Coppens I, Joiner KA
  Title
Parasitehost cell interactions in toxoplasmosis: new avenues for intervention?
  Journal
Expert Rev Mol Med 2001:1-20 (2001)
DOI:10.1017/S1462399401002277
Reference
  Authors
Aliberti J, Sher A
  Title
Role of G-protein-coupled signaling in the induction and regulation of dendritic cell function by Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
Microbes Infect 4:991-7 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1286-4579(02)01618-0
Reference
  Authors
Sher A, Collazzo C, Scanga C, Jankovic D, Yap G, Aliberti J
  Title
Induction and regulation of IL-12-dependent host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
Immunol Res 27:521-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1385/IR:27:2-3:521
Reference
  Authors
Bonhomme A, Bouchot A, Pezzella N, Gomez J, Le Moal H, Pinon JM
  Title
Signaling during the invasion of host cells by Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 23:551-61 (1999)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.1999.tb00413.x
Reference
  Authors
Laliberte J, Carruthers VB
  Title
Host cell manipulation by the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:1900-15 (2008)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-008-7556-x
Reference
  Authors
Bogdan C, Rollinghoff M
  Title
How do protozoan parasites survive inside macrophages?
  Journal
Parasitol Today 15:22-8 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Molestina RE, Sinai AP
  Title
Host and parasite-derived IKK activities direct distinct temporal phases of NF-kappaB activation and target gene expression following Toxoplasma gondii infection.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 118:5785-96 (2005)
DOI:10.1242/jcs.02709
KO pathway
ko05145   

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