KEGG   PATHWAY: map05150Help
Entry
map05150                    Pathway                                

Name
Staphylococcus aureus infection
Description
Staphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the effectiveness of the immune system: secreting immune modulating proteins that inhibit complement activation and neutrophil chemotaxis or lysis, modulating the sensitivity to cationic antimicrobial peptides (such as defensin) by increasing the positive net charge of its cytoplasmic membrane, and expression of superantigens that prevent development of a normal immune response or cause an emetic response when ingested.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious diseases: Bacterial
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map05150  Staphylococcus aureus infection
map05150

Ortholog table
Disease
H00330  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) infection
H00331  Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (VRSA) infection
H01409  Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection
Reference
  Authors
Foster TJ
  Title
Colonization and infection of the human host by staphylococci: adhesion, survival and immune evasion.
  Journal
Vet Dermatol 20:456-70 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00825.x
Reference
  Authors
Foster TJ
  Title
Immune evasion by staphylococci.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 3:948-58 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro1289
Reference
  Authors
Laarman A, Milder F, van Strijp J, Rooijakkers S
  Title
Complement inhibition by gram-positive pathogens: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.
  Journal
J Mol Med 88:115-20 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s00109-009-0572-y
Reference
  Authors
Rooijakkers SH, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA
  Title
Staphylococcal innate immune evasion.
  Journal
Trends Microbiol 13:596-601 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.tim.2005.10.002
Reference
  Authors
Iwatsuki K, Yamasaki O, Morizane S, Oono T
  Title
Staphylococcal cutaneous infections: invasion, evasion and aggression.
  Journal
J Dermatol Sci 42:203-14 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.03.011
Reference
  Authors
Torres BA, Kominsky S, Perrin GQ, Hobeika AC, Johnson HM
  Title
Superantigens: the good, the bad, and the ugly.
  Journal
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 226:164-76 (2001)
DOI:10.1177/153537020122600303
Reference
  Authors
Atkins KL, Burman JD, Chamberlain ES, Cooper JE, Poutrel B, Bagby S, Jenkins AT, Feil EJ, van den Elsen JM
  Title
S. aureus IgG-binding proteins SpA and Sbi: host specificity and mechanisms of immune complex formation.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 45:1600-11 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.10.021
Reference
  Authors
Silverman GJ, Goodyear CS
  Title
Confounding B-cell defences: lessons from a staphylococcal superantigen.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 6:465-75 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nri1853
Reference
  Authors
Goodyear CS, Silverman GJ
  Title
Staphylococcal toxin induced preferential and prolonged in vivo deletion of innate-like B lymphocytes.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11392-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0404382101
Reference
  Authors
Haupt K, Reuter M, van den Elsen J, Burman J, Halbich S, Richter J, Skerka C, Zipfel PF
  Title
The Staphylococcus aureus protein Sbi acts as a complement inhibitor and forms a tripartite complex with host complement Factor H and C3b.
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000250 (2008)
DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000250
Reference
  Authors
Bokarewa MI, Jin T, Tarkowski A
  Title
Staphylococcus aureus: Staphylokinase.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38:504-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.07.005
Reference
  Authors
Rooijakkers SH, Ruyken M, Roos A, Daha MR, Presanis JS, Sim RB, van Wamel WJ, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA
  Title
Immune evasion by a staphylococcal complement inhibitor that acts on C3 convertases.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 6:920-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/ni1235
Reference
  Authors
Rooijakkers SH, Wu J, Ruyken M, van Domselaar R, Planken KL, Tzekou A, Ricklin D, Lambris JD, Janssen BJ, van Strijp JA, Gros P
  Title
Structural and functional implications of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase stabilized by a staphylococcal inhibitor.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 10:721-7 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/ni.1756
Reference
  Authors
Jongerius I, Kohl J, Pandey MK, Ruyken M, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA, Rooijakkers SH
  Title
Staphylococcal complement evasion by various convertase-blocking molecules.
  Journal
J Exp Med 204:2461-71 (2007)
DOI:10.1084/jem.20070818
Reference
  Authors
Hair PS, Ward MD, Semmes OJ, Foster TJ, Cunnion KM
  Title
Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor A binds to complement regulator factor I and increases factor I cleavage of C3b.
  Journal
J Infect Dis 198:125-33 (2008)
DOI:10.1086/588825
Reference
  Authors
Higgins J, Loughman A, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA, Foster TJ
  Title
Clumping factor A of Staphylococcus aureus inhibits phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 258:290-6 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00229.x
Reference
  Authors
Laursen NS, Gordon N, Hermans S, Lorenz N, Jackson N, Wines B, Spillner E, Christensen JB, Jensen M, Fredslund F, Bjerre M, Sottrup-Jensen L, Fraser JD, Andersen GR
  Title
Structural basis for inhibition of complement C5 by the SSL7 protein from Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3681-6 (2010)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0910565107
Reference
  Authors
Ramsland PA, Willoughby N, Trist HM, Farrugia W, Hogarth PM, Fraser JD, Wines BD
  Title
Structural basis for evasion of IgA immunity by Staphylococcus aureus revealed in the complex of SSL7 with Fc of human IgA1.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15051-6 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0706028104
Reference
  Authors
de Haas CJ, Veldkamp KE, Peschel A, Weerkamp F, Van Wamel WJ, Heezius EC, Poppelier MJ, Van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA
  Title
Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial antiinflammatory agent.
  Journal
J Exp Med 199:687-95 (2004)
DOI:10.1084/jem.20031636
Reference
  Authors
Prat C, Bestebroer J, de Haas CJ, van Strijp JA, van Kessel KP
  Title
A new staphylococcal anti-inflammatory protein that antagonizes the formyl peptide receptor-like 1.
  Journal
J Immunol 177:8017-26 (2006)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.177.11.8017
Reference
  Authors
Bestebroer J, Poppelier MJ, Ulfman LH, Lenting PJ, Denis CV, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA, de Haas CJ
  Title
Staphylococcal superantigen-like 5 binds PSGL-1 and inhibits P-selectin-mediated neutrophil rolling.
  Journal
Blood 109:2936-43 (2007)
DOI:10.1182/blood-2006-06-015461
Reference
  Authors
Chung MC, Wines BD, Baker H, Langley RJ, Baker EN, Fraser JD
  Title
The crystal structure of staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 11 in complex with sialyl Lewis X reveals the mechanism for cell binding and immune inhibition.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 66:1342-55 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05989.x
Reference
  Authors
Chavakis T, Hussain M, Kanse SM, Peters G, Bretzel RG, Flock JI, Herrmann M, Preissner KT
  Title
Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein serves as anti-inflammatory factor by inhibiting the recruitment of host leukocytes.
  Journal
Nat Med 8:687-93 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nm728
Reference
  Authors
Li M, Lai Y, Villaruz AE, Cha DJ, Sturdevant DE, Otto M
  Title
Gram-positive three-component antimicrobial peptide-sensing system.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9469-74 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0702159104
Reference
  Authors
Sieprawska-Lupa M, Mydel P, Krawczyk K, Wojcik K, Puklo M, Lupa B, Suder P, Silberring J, Reed M, Pohl J, Shafer W, McAleese F, Foster T, Travis J, Potempa J
  Title
Degradation of human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by Staphylococcus aureus-derived proteinases.
  Journal
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4673-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/AAC.48.12.4673-4679.2004
Reference
  Authors
Fraser JD, Proft T
  Title
The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 225:226-43 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00681.x
Reference
  Authors
Yamaguchi T, Nishifuji K, Sasaki M, Fudaba Y, Aepfelbacher M, Takata T, Ohara M, Komatsuzawa H, Amagai M, Sugai M
  Title
Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus etd pathogenicity island which encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, ETD, and EDIN-B.
  Journal
Infect Immun 70:5835-45 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/IAI.70.10.5835-5845.2002
Reference
  Authors
Pazgier M, Hoover DM, Yang D, Lu W, Lubkowski J
  Title
Human beta-defensins.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 63:1294-313 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-005-5540-2
Reference
  Authors
Zhang Q, Mousdicas N, Yi Q, Al-Hassani M, Billings SD, Perkins SM, Howard KM, Ishii S, Shimizu T, Travers JB
  Title
Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions via the platelet-activating factor receptor.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:2855-61 (2005)
DOI:10.1172/JCI25429
Reference
  Authors
Lehrer RI
  Title
Primate defensins.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 2:727-38 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro976
KO pathway
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