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Entry
map05416                    Pathway                                

Name
Viral myocarditis
Description
Myocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is still considered the dominant etiological agent. Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic effects of virus, a pathologic immune response to persistent virus, or autoimmunity triggered by the viral infection. The virus enters the myocyte through internalization of the coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) and its coreceptor, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). Viral proteases cleave various proteins in the host cell. One example is viral protease 2A, which cleaves eukaryote initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the dystrophin protein, resulting in a complete shutdown of cap-dependent RNA translation and cytoskeletal destruction in infected cardiomyocytes, respectively. CVB3 also cleaves the member of the Bcl-2 family Bid, leading to apoptosis. CVB3 infection also induces the cleavage of cyclin D protein through a proteasome-dependent pathway, leading to the host cell-growth arrest. Viral infection and necrosis of myocytes may lead to the release of intracellular antigens, resulting in activation of self-reactive T cells. CVB infection is a significant cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as myocarditis. Epidemiologically, myocarditis underlies a significant portion of patients with DCM.
Class
09160 Human Diseases; 09165 Cardiovascular diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map05416  Viral myocarditis
map05416

Ortholog table
Disease
H00295  Viral myocarditis
Reference
  Authors
Esfandiarei M, McManus BM
  Title
Molecular biology and pathogenesis of viral myocarditis.
  Journal
Annu Rev Pathol 3:127-55 (2008)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.pathmechdis.3.121806.151534
Reference
  Authors
Badorff C, Knowlton KU
  Title
Dystrophin disruption in enterovirus-induced myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: from bench to bedside.
  Journal
Med Microbiol Immunol 193:121-6 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s00430-003-0189-7
Reference
  Authors
Maekawa Y, Ouzounian M, Opavsky MA, Liu PP
  Title
Connecting the missing link between dilated cardiomyopathy and viral myocarditis: virus, cytoskeleton, and innate immunity.
  Journal
Circulation 115:5-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.670554
Reference
  Authors
Pankuweit S, Portig I, Maisch B
  Title
Pathophysiology of cardiac inflammation: molecular mechanisms.
  Journal
Herz 27:669-76 (2002)
DOI:10.1007/s00059-002-2421-4
Reference
  Authors
Gao G, Luo H
  Title
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in viral infections.
  Journal
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 84:5-14 (2006)
DOI:10.1139/y05-144
Reference
  Authors
Coyne CB, Bergelson JM
  Title
Virus-induced Abl and Fyn kinase signals permit coxsackievirus entry through epithelial tight junctions.
  Journal
Cell 124:119-31 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2005.10.035
Reference
  Authors
Badorff C, Lee GH, Knowlton KU
  Title
Enteroviral cardiomyopathy: bad news for the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.
  Journal
Herz 25:227-32 (2000)
DOI:10.1007/s000590050011
Reference
  Authors
Knowlton KU
  Title
CVB infection and mechanisms of viral cardiomyopathy.
  Journal
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 323:315-35 (2008)
DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-75546-3_15
Reference
  Authors
Castellano G, Affuso F, Di Conza P, Fazio S
  Title
Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: possible connections and treatments.
  Journal
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 9:666-71 (2008)
DOI:10.2459/JCM.0b013e3282f3e9c2
Reference
  Authors
Cooper LT Jr
  Title
Myocarditis.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 360:1526-38 (2009)
DOI:10.1056/NEJMra0800028
Reference
  Authors
Kawai C
  Title
From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future.
  Journal
Circulation 99:1091-100 (1999)
DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.99.8.1091
Reference
  Authors
Liu PP, Mason JW
  Title
Advances in the understanding of myocarditis.
  Journal
Circulation 104:1076-82 (2001)
DOI:10.1161/hc3401.095198
Reference
  Authors
Mason JW
  Title
Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: an inflammatory link.
  Journal
Cardiovasc Res 60:5-10 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0008-6363(03)00437-1
Reference
  Authors
Tam PE
  Title
Coxsackievirus myocarditis: interplay between virus and host in the pathogenesis of heart disease.
  Journal
Viral Immunol 19:133-46 (2006)
DOI:10.1089/vim.2006.19.133
KO pathway
ko05416   

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