KEGG   PATHWAY: map00563Help
Entry
map00563                    Pathway                                

Name
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis
Description
Cell surface proteins can be attached to the cell membrane via the glycolipid structure called glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Hundreds of GPI-anchored proteins have been identified in many eukaryotes ranging from protozoa and fungi to mammals. All protein-linked GPI anchors share a common core structure, characterized by the substructure Man (a1-4) GlcN (a1-6) myo-inositol-1P-lipid. Biosynthesis of GPI anchors proceeds in three stages: (i) preassembly of a GPI precursor in the ER membrane, (ii) attachment of the GPI to the C-terminus of a newly synthesized protein in the lumen of the ER, and (iii) lipid remodeling and/or carbohydrate side-chain modifications in the ER and the Golgi. Defects of GPI anchor biosynthesis gene result in a genetic disorder, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Class
Metabolism; Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map00563  Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis
map00563

Ortholog table
Module
M00065  GPI-anchor biosynthesis, core oligosaccharide [PATH:map00563]
Disease
H01053  Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
H01127  PIGM-congenital disorder of glycosylation
H01485  Autosomal recessive mental retardation-42
H01486  Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome
H01487  CHIME syndrome
H01488  Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome
H01489  Inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiencies
Other DBs
GO: 0006506
Reference
  Authors
Eisenhaber B, Maurer-Stroh S, Novatchkova M, Schneider G, Eisenhaber F.
  Title
Enzymes and auxiliary factors for GPI lipid anchor biosynthesis and post-translational transfer to proteins.
  Journal
Bioessays 25:367-85 (2003)
DOI:10.1002/bies.10254
Reference
  Authors
Kinoshita T, Inoue N.
  Title
Dissecting and manipulating the pathway for glycosylphos-phatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis.
  Journal
Curr Opin Chem Biol 4:632-8 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S1367-5931(00)00151-4
Reference
PMID:8253761
  Authors
Fankhauser C, Homans SW, Thomas-Oates JE, McConville MJ, Desponds C, Conzelmann A, Ferguson MA.
  Title
Structures of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 268:26365-74 (1993)
Reference
  Authors
Murakami Y, Siripanyapinyo U, Hong Y, Kang JY, Ishihara S, Nakakuma H, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T.
  Title
PIG-W is critical for inositol acylation but not for flipping of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor.
  Journal
Mol Biol Cell 14:4285-95 (2003)
DOI:10.1091/mbc.E03-03-0193
Reference
  Authors
Benachour A, Sipos G, Flury I, Reggiori F, Canivenc-Gansel E, Vionnet C, Conzelmann A, Benghezal M.
  Title
Deletion of GPI7, a yeast gene required for addition of a side chain to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) core structure, affects GPI protein transport, remodeling, and cell wall integrity.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 274:15251-61 (1999)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.274.21.15251
Reference
  Authors
Tanaka S, Maeda Y, Tashima Y, Kinoshita T.
  Title
Inositol deacylation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins is mediated by mammalian PGAP1 and yeast Bst1p.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:14256-63 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M313755200
Reference
  Authors
Hong Y, Ohishi K, Kang JY, Tanaka S, Inoue N, Nishimura J, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T.
  Title
Human PIG-U and yeast Cdc91p are the fifth subunit of GPI transamidase that attaches GPI-anchors to proteins.
  Journal
Mol Biol Cell 14:1780-9 (2003)
DOI:10.1091/mbc.E02-12-0794
Reference
  Authors
Tanaka S, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T.
  Title
[Biosynthesis of GPI-anchored proteins]
  Journal
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 48:990-6 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Kang JY, Hong Y, Ashida H, Shishioh N, Murakami Y, Morita YS, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T.
  Title
PIG-V involved in transferring the second mannose in glycosylphosphatidylinositol.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:9489-97 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M413867200
Reference
  Authors
Ashida H, Hong Y, Murakami Y, Shishioh N, Sugimoto N, Kim YU, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T.
  Title
Mammalian PIG-X and yeast Pbn1p are the essential components of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mannosyltransferase I.
  Journal
Mol Biol Cell 16:1439-48 (2005)
DOI:10.1091/mbc.E04-09-0802
KO pathway
ko00563   

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