KEGG   PATHWAY: map00910Help
Entry
map00910                    Pathway                                

Name
Nitrogen metabolism
Description
The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and two oxidation pathways. Nitrogen fixation [MD:M00175] is the process of reducing atmospheric molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a biologically useful reduced form incorporated into amino acids and other vital compounds. The ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the nitrogenase enzyme complex is present in restricted prokaryotes (diazotrophs). The other reduction pathways are assimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00531] and dissimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00530] both for conversion to ammonia, and denitrification [MD:M00529]. Denitrification is a respiration in which nitrate or nitrite is reduced as a terminal electron acceptor under low oxygen or anoxic conditions, producing gaseous nitrogen compounds (N2, NO and N2O) to the atmosphere. The two oxidation pathways are nitrification [MD:M00528] and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Nitrification is the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of nitrite into nitrate. The first step is performed by ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (e.g., Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus) and the second step by nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms (e.g., Nitrobacter). Anammox is a biochemical process of oxidizing ammonium (NH4+) into dinitrogen gas (N2) using nitrite as an electron acceptor. It occurs in the anammoxosome, a membrane bound compartment inside the cytoplasm, of anammox bacteria (e.g., Planctomycetes).
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map00910  Nitrogen metabolism
map00910

Ortholog table
Module
M00175  Nitrogen fixation, nitrogen => ammonia [PATH:map00910]
M00438  Nitrate/nitrite transport system [PATH:map00910]
M00528  Nitrification, ammonia => nitrite [PATH:map00910]
M00529  Denitrification, nitrate => nitrogen [PATH:map00910]
M00530  Dissimilatory nitrate reduction, nitrate => ammonia [PATH:map00910]
M00531  Assimilatory nitrate reduction, nitrate => ammonia [PATH:map00910]
M00804  Complete nitrification, comammox, ammonia => nitrite => nitrate [PATH:map00910]
Disease
H00164  Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency
H00923  Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency
Other DBs
GO: 0006807
Reference
  Authors
Scott JD, Ludwig RA
  Title
Azorhizobium caulinodans electron-transferring flavoprotein N electrochemically couples pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity to N2 fixation.
  Journal
Microbiology 150:117-26 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/mic.0.26603-0
Reference
  Authors
Kneip C, Lockhart P, Voss C, Maier UG
  Title
Nitrogen fixation in eukaryotes--new models for symbiosis.
  Journal
BMC Evol Biol 7:55 (2007)
DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-7-55
Reference
  Authors
Whittaker M, Bergmann D, Arciero D, Hooper AB
  Title
Electron transfer during the oxidation of ammonia by the chemolithotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1459:346-55 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0005-2728(00)00171-7
Reference
  Authors
Cabello P, Roldan MD, Moreno-Vivian C
  Title
Nitrate reduction and the nitrogen cycle in archaea.
  Journal
Microbiology 150:3527-46 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/mic.0.27303-0
Reference
  Authors
Stolz JF, Basu P
  Title
Evolution of nitrate reductase: molecular and structural variations on a common function.
  Journal
Reference
  Authors
Morozkina EV, Zvyagilskaya RA
  Title
Nitrate reductases: structure, functions, and effect of stress factors.
  Journal
Biochemistry (Mosc) 72:1151-60 (2007)
DOI:10.1134/S0006297907100124
Reference
  Authors
Jetten MS, Niftrik L, Strous M, Kartal B, Keltjens JT, Op den Camp HJ
  Title
Biochemistry and molecular biology of anammox bacteria.
  Journal
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 44:65-84 (2009)
DOI:10.1080/10409230902722783
Reference
  Authors
Luesken FA, Wu ML, Op den Camp HJ, Keltjens JT, Stunnenberg H, Francoijs KJ, Strous M, Jetten MS
  Title
Effect of oxygen on the anaerobic methanotroph 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera': kinetic and transcriptional analysis.
  Journal
Environ Microbiol 14:1024-34 (2012)
DOI:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02682.x
Reference
  Authors
Daims H, Lebedeva EV, Pjevac P, Han P, Herbold C, Albertsen M, Jehmlich N, Palatinszky M, Vierheilig J, Bulaev A, Kirkegaard RH, von Bergen M, Rattei T, Bendinger B, Nielsen PH, Wagner M
  Title
Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria.
  Journal
Nature 528:504-9 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nature16461
Reference
  Authors
van Kessel MA, Speth DR, Albertsen M, Nielsen PH, Op den Camp HJ, Kartal B, Jetten MS, Lucker S
  Title
Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.
  Journal
Nature 528:555-9 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nature16459
KO pathway
ko00910   

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