KEGG   PATHWAY: map02020Help
Entry
map02020                    Pathway                                

Name
Two-component system
Description
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription.
Class
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map02020  Two-component system
map02020

Ortholog table
Module
M00314  Bacitracin transport system [PATH:map02020]
M00315  Uncharacterized ABC transport system [PATH:map02020]
M00316  Manganese transport system [PATH:map02020]
M00434  PhoR-PhoB (phosphate starvation response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00443  SenX3-RegX3 (phosphate starvation response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00444  PhoQ-PhoP (magnesium transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00445  EnvZ-OmpR (osmotic stress response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00446  RstB-RstA two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00447  CpxA-CpxR (envelope stress response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00448  CssS-CssR (secretion stress response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00449  CreC-CreB (phosphate regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00450  BaeS-BaeR (envelope stress response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00451  BasS-BasR (antimicrobial peptide resistance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00452  CusS-CusR (copper tolerance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00453  QseC-QseB (quorum sensing) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00454  KdpD-KdpE (potassium transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00455  TorS-TorR (TMAO respiration) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00456  ArcB-ArcA (anoxic redox control) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00457  TctE-TctD (tricarboxylic acid transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00458  ResE-ResD (aerobic and anaerobic respiration) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00459  VicK-VicR (cell wall metabolism) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00460  MprB-MprA (maintenance of persistent infection) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00461  MtrB-MtrA (osmotic stress response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00462  PrrB-PrrA (intracellular multiplication) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00463  TrcS-TrcR two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00464  NrsS-NrsR (nickel tolerance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00465  ManS-ManR (manganese homeostasis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00466  NblS-NblR (photosynthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00467  SasA-RpaAB (circadian timing mediating) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00468  SaeS-SaeR (staphylococcal virulence regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00469  BceS-BceR (bacitracin transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00470  YxdK-YxdJ (antimicrobial peptide response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00471  NarX-NarL (nitrate respiration) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00472  NarQ-NarP (nitrate respiration) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00473  UhpB-UhpA (hexose phosphates uptake) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00474  RcsC-RcsD-RcsB (capsule synthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00475  BarA-UvrY (central carbon metabolism) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00476  ComP-ComA (competence) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00477  EvgS-EvgA (acid and drug tolerance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00478  DegS-DegU (multicellular behavior control) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00479  DesK-DesR (membrane lipid fluidity regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00480  VraS-VraR (cell-wall peptidoglycan synthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00481  LiaS-LiaR (cell wall stress response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00482  DevS-DevR (redox response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00483  NreB-NreC (dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00484  YdfH-YdfI two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00485  KinABCDE-Spo0FA (sporulation control) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00486  CitA-CitB (citrate fermentation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00487  CitS-CitT (magnesium-citrate transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00488  DcuS-DcuR (C4-dicarboxylate metabolism) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00489  DctS-DctR (C4-dicarboxylate transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00490  MalK-MalR (malate transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00492  LytS-LytR two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00493  AlgZ-AlgR (alginate production) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00494  NatK-NatR (sodium extrusion) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00495  AgrC-AgrA (exoprotein synthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00496  ComD-ComE (competence) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00497  GlnL-GlnG (nitrogen regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00498  NtrY-NtrX (nitrogen regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00499  HydH-HydG (metal tolerance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00500  AtoS-AtoC (cPHB biosynthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00501  PilS-PilR (type 4 fimbriae synthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00502  GlrK-GlrR (amino sugar metabolism) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00503  PgtB-PgtA (phosphoglycerate transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00504  DctB-DctD (C4-dicarboxylate transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00505  KinB-AlgB (alginate production) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00506  CheA-CheYBV (chemotaxis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00507  ChpA-ChpB/PilGH (chemosensory) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00508  PixL-PixGH (positive phototaxis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00509  WspE-WspRF (chemosensory) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00510  Cph1-Rcp1 (light response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00511  PleC-PleD (cell fate control) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00512  CckA-CtrA/CpdR (cell cycle control) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00513  LuxQN/CqsS-LuxU-LuxO (quorum sensing) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00514  TtrS-TtrR (tetrathionate respiration) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00515  FlrB-FlrC (polar flagellar synthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00516  SLN1-YPD1-SSK1/SKN7 (osmosensing) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00517  RpfC-RpfG (cell-to-cell signaling) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00518  GlnK-GlnL (glutamine utilization) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00519  YesM-YesN two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00520  ChvG-ChvI (acidity sensing) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00521  CiaH-CiaR two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00522  SalK-SalR two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00523  RegB-RegA (redox response) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00524  FixL-FixJ (nitrogen fixation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00645  Multidrug resistance, efflux pump SmeABC [PATH:map02020]
M00646  Multidrug resistance, efflux pump AcrAD-TolC [PATH:map02020]
M00648  Multidrug resistance, efflux pump MdtABC [PATH:map02020]
M00651  Vancomycin resistance, D-Ala-D-Lac type [PATH:map02020]
M00652  Vancomycin resistance, D-Ala-D-Ser type [PATH:map02020]
M00653  AauS-AauR (acidic amino acids utilization) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00654  ParS-ParR (polymyxin-adaptive resistance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00656  VanS-VanR (VanB type vancomycin resistance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00657  VanS-VanR (VanE type vancomycin resistance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00658  VanS-VanR (actinomycete type vancomycin resistance) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00662  Hk1-Rrp1 (glycerol uptake and utilization) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00663  SsrA-SsrB two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00716  ArlS-ArlR (virulence regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00719  Ihk-Irr (virulence regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00731  Bacitracin transport system [PATH:map02020]
M00732  Cationic antimicrobial peptide transport system [PATH:map02020]
M00733  GraS-GraR (cationic antimicrobial peptide transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00734  BraS-BraR (bacitracin transport) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00737  Bacitracin resistance, VraDE transporter [PATH:map02020]
M00738  Bacitracin resistance, BceAB transporter [PATH:map02020]
M00770  PfeS-PfeR (enterobactin-dependent iron acquisition) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00771  FitF-FitH (insecticidal toxin regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00772  HupT-HupR (hydrogenase synthesis regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00816  NisK-NisR (lantibiotic biosynthesis) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00818  FusK-FusR (virulence regulation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
M00820  SagS-HptB-HsbR (swarming activity and biofilm formation) two-component regulatory system [PATH:map02020]
Other DBs
GO: 0000160
Reference
  Authors
Yamamoto K, Hirao K, Oshima T, Aiba H, Utsumi R, Ishihama A.
  Title
Functional characterization in vitro of all two-component signal transduction systems from Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:1448-56 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M410104200
Reference
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Abdel-Fattah WR, Chen Y, Eldakak A, Hulett FM.
  Title
Bacillus subtilis phosphorylated PhoP: direct activation of the E(sigma)A- and repression of the E(sigma)E-responsive phoB-PS+V promoters during pho response.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 187:5166-78 (2005)
DOI:10.1128/JB.187.15.5166-5178.2005
Reference
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Navarre WW, Halsey TA, Walthers D, Frye J, McClelland M, Potter JL, Kenney LJ, Gunn JS, Fang FC, Libby SJ.
  Title
Co-regulation of Salmonella enterica genes required for virulence and resistance to antimicrobial peptides by SlyA and PhoP/PhoQ.
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Mol Microbiol 56:492-508 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04553.x
Reference
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Cai SJ, Inouye M.
  Title
EnvZ-OmpR interaction and osmoregulation in Escherichia coli.
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J Biol Chem 277:24155-61 (2002)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110715200
Reference
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Batchelor E, Walthers D, Kenney LJ, Goulian M.
  Title
The Escherichia coli CpxA-CpxR envelope stress response system regulates expression of the porins ompF and ompC.
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J Bacteriol 187:5723-31 (2005)
DOI:10.1128/JB.187.16.5723-5731.2005
Reference
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Nagakubo S, Nishino K, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A.
  Title
The putative response regulator BaeR stimulates multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli via a novel multidrug exporter system, MdtABC.
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J Bacteriol 184:4161-7 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/JB.184.15.4161-4167.2002
Reference
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Hagiwara D, Yamashino T, Mizuno T.
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A Genome-wide view of the Escherichia coli BasS-BasR two-component system implicated in iron-responses.
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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:1758-67 (2004)
DOI:10.1271/bbb.68.1758
Reference
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Munson GP, Lam DL, Outten FW, O'Halloran TV.
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Identification of a copper-responsive two-component system on the chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12.
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J Bacteriol 182:5864-71 (2000)
DOI:10.1128/JB.182.20.5864-5871.2000
Reference
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Sperandio V, Torres AG, Kaper JB.
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Quorum sensing Escherichia coli regulators B and C (QseBC): a novel two-component regulatory system involved in the regulation of flagella and motility by quorum sensing in E. coli.
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Mol Microbiol 43:809-21 (2002)
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The roles and regulation of potassium in bacteria.
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The TorR high-affinity binding site plays a key role in both torR autoregulation and torCAD operon expression in Escherichia coli.
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J Bacteriol 182:961-6 (2000)
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Identification of a quinone-sensitive redox switch in the ArcB sensor kinase.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13318-23 (2004)
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PMID:2666399
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Genetic regulation of the tricarboxylate transport operon (tctI) of Salmonella typhimurium.
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J Bacteriol 171:4436-41 (1989)
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Reference
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A novel two-component regulatory system in Bacillus subtilis for the survival of severe secretion stress.
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Mol Microbiol 41:1159-72 (2001)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02576.x
Reference
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  Title
ResD signal transduction regulator of aerobic respiration in Bacillus subtilis: ctaA promoter regulation.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 37:1208-19 (2000)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.02076.x
Reference
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Senadheera MD, Guggenheim B, Spatafora GA, Huang YC, Choi J, Hung DC, Treglown JS, Goodman SD, Ellen RP, Cvitkovitch DG.
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A VicRK signal transduction system in Streptococcus mutans affects gtfBCD, gbpB, and ftf expression, biofilm formation, and genetic competence development.
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J Bacteriol 187:4064-76 (2005)
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Reference
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Identification and characterization of a regulatory sequence recognized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence regulator MprA.
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J Bacteriol 187:202-12 (2005)
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Reference
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  Title
Unusual two-component signal transduction pathways in the actinobacteria.
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Adv Appl Microbiol 61:1-26 (2007)
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Reference
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Osmosensing and osmosignaling in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
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Amino Acids 37:487-97 (2009)
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Reference
PMID:7751278
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Oxygen-insensitive synthesis of the photosynthetic membranes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: a mutant histidine kinase.
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J Bacteriol 177:2695-706 (1995)
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Reference
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In vitro evidence of two-component system phosphorylation between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis TrcR/TrcS proteins.
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Reference
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Reference
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The sensor kinase CitA (DpiB) of Escherichia coli functions as a high-affinity citrate receptor.
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Reference
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Function of DcuS from Escherichia coli as a fumarate-stimulated histidine protein kinase in vitro.
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Reference
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Identification and molecular characterization of a putative regulatory locus that affects autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus.
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Reference
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Reference
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Reference
PMID:8501030
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  Title
Dual response regulators (NarL and NarP) interact with dual sensors (NarX and NarQ) to control nitrate- and nitrite-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12.
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Reference
PMID:9220011
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  Title
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Reference
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  Title
Cooperativity in signal transfer through the Uhp system of Escherichia coli.
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J Bacteriol 184:4205-10 (2002)
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Reference
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Hagiwara D, Sugiura M, Oshima T, Mori H, Aiba H, Yamashino T, Mizuno T.
  Title
Genome-wide analyses revealing a signaling network of the RcsC-YojN-RcsB phosphorelay system in Escherichia coli.
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J Bacteriol 185:5735-46 (2003)
DOI:10.1128/JB.185.19.5735-5746.2003
Reference
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Hirakawa H, Nishino K, Yamada J, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A.
  Title
Beta-lactam resistance modulated by the overexpression of response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Antimicrob Chemother 52:576-82 (2003)
DOI:10.1093/jac/dkg406
Reference
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  Title
Regulatory circuitry of the CsrA/CsrB and BarA/UvrY systems of Escherichia coli.
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J Bacteriol 184:5130-40 (2002)
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Reference
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Kato A, Ohnishi H, Yamamoto K, Furuta E, Tanabe H, Utsumi R.
  Title
Transcription of emrKY is regulated by the EvgA-EvgS two-component system in Escherichia coli K-12.
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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:1203-9 (2000)
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Reference
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Ansaldi M, Dubnau D.
  Title
Diversifying selection at the Bacillus quorum-sensing locus and determinants of modification specificity during synthesis of the ComX pheromone.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 186:15-21 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/JB.186.1.15-21.2004
Reference
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Gabdrakhmanova L, Vishniakov I, Sharipova M, Balaban N, Kostrov S, Leshchinskaya I.
  Title
Salt stress induction of glutamyl endopeptidase biosynthesis in Bacillus intermedius.
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Microbiol Res 160:233-42 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.micres.2004.05.005
Reference
  Authors
Aguilar PS, Hernandez-Arriaga AM, Cybulski LE, Erazo AC, de Mendoza D.
  Title
Molecular basis of thermosensing: a two-component signal transduction thermometer in Bacillus subtilis.
  Journal
EMBO J 20:1681-91 (2001)
DOI:10.1093/emboj/20.7.1681
Reference
  Authors
Kuroda M, Kuroda H, Oshima T, Takeuchi F, Mori H, Hiramatsu K.
  Title
Two-component system VraSR positively modulates the regulation of cell-wall biosynthesis pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 49:807-21 (2003)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03599.x
Reference
  Authors
Saini DK, Malhotra V, Dey D, Pant N, Das TK, Tyagi JS.
  Title
DevR-DevS is a bona fide two-component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is hypoxia-responsive in the absence of the DNA-binding domain of DevR.
  Journal
Microbiology 150:865-75 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/mic.0.26218-0
Reference
  Authors
Fedtke I, Kamps A, Krismer B, Gotz F.
  Title
The nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase operons and the narT gene of Staphylococcus carnosus are positively controlled by the novel two-component system NreBC.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 184:6624-34 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/JB.184.23.6624-6634.2002
Reference
PMID:8416895
  Authors
Shiau SP, Chen P, Reitzer LJ.
  Title
Effects of insertions and deletions in glnG (ntrC) of Escherichia coli on nitrogen regulator I-dependent DNA binding and transcriptional activation.
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J Bacteriol 175:190-9 (1993)
DOI:10.1128/JB.175.1.190-199.1993
Reference
  Authors
Leonhartsberger S, Huber A, Lottspeich F, Bock A.
  Title
The hydH/G Genes from Escherichia coli code for a zinc and lead responsive two-component regulatory system.
  Journal
J Mol Biol 307:93-105 (2001)
DOI:10.1006/jmbi.2000.4451
Reference
  Authors
Lioliou EE, Kyriakidis DA.
  Title
The role of bacterial antizyme: From an inhibitory protein to AtoC transcriptional regulator.
  Journal
Microb Cell Fact 3:8 (2004)
DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-3-8
Reference
  Authors
Yamamoto K, Ishihama A
  Title
Transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to external copper.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 56:215-27 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04532.x
Reference
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