KEGG   PATHWAY: map04140Help
Entry
map04140                    Pathway                                

Name
Autophagy - animal
Description
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map04140  Autophagy - animal
map04140

Ortholog table
Disease
H00286  Crohn disease
H01227  Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Other DBs
GO: 0006914
Reference
  Authors
Meijer AJ, Codogno P.
  Title
Regulation and role of autophagy in mammalian cells.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2445-62 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.02.002
Reference
  Authors
Deretic V.
  Title
Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
  Journal
Trends Immunol 26:523-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.it.2005.08.003
Reference
  Authors
Levine B, Yuan J.
  Title
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:2679-88 (2005)
DOI:10.1172/JCI26390
Reference
  Authors
Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E.
  Title
LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2503-18 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.05.009
Reference
  Authors
Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB.
  Title
Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:439-48 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrm1660
Reference
  Authors
Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ.
  Title
Autophagosomes: biogenesis from scratch?
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 17:415-22 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2005.06.007
Reference
  Authors
Klionsky DJ, Emr SD.
  Title
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
  Journal
Science 290:1717-21 (2000)
DOI:10.1126/science.290.5497.1717
Reference
  Authors
Bechet D, Tassa A, Taillandier D, Combaret L, Attaix D.
  Title
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2098-114 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.02.029
Reference
  Authors
He C, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 43:67-93 (2009)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-genet-102808-114910
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
An overview of the molecular mechanism of autophagy.
  Journal
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 335:1-32 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-00302-8_1
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:124-31 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2009.11.014
Reference
  Authors
Chen Y, Klionsky DJ
  Title
The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 124:161-70 (2011)
DOI:10.1242/jcs.064576
Reference
  Authors
Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y
  Title
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 27:107-32 (2011)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-cellbio-092910-154005
Reference
  Authors
Russell RC, Yuan HX, Guan KL
  Title
Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling.
  Journal
Cell Res 24:42-57 (2014)
DOI:10.1038/cr.2013.166
Reference
  Authors
Noda NN, Fujioka Y
  Title
Atg1 family kinases in autophagy initiation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 72:3083-96 (2015)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-015-1917-z
KO pathway
ko04140   

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