KEGG   PATHWAY: map04350
Entry
map04350                    Pathway                                

Name
TGF-beta signaling pathway
Description
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins.
Class
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
Pathway map
map04350  TGF-beta signaling pathway
map04350

Disease
H00958  Congenital stromal corneal dystrophy
H01023  Juvenile polyposis syndrome
H01024  Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome
H01149  Ring dermoid of cornea
H02102  Myhre syndrome
Other DBs
GO: 0007179
Reference
  Authors
Shi Y, Massague J.
  Title
Mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus.
  Journal
Cell 113:685-700 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00432-X
Reference
  Authors
Derynck R, Zhang YE.
  Title
Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling.
  Journal
Nature 425:577-84 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nature02006
Reference
  Authors
Massague J.
  Title
How cells read TGF-beta signals.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1:169-78 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35043051
Reference
  Authors
Siegel PM, Massague J.
  Title
Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-beta in homeostasis and cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:807-21 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1208
Reference
  Authors
Shimasaki S, Moore RK, Otsuka F, Erickson GF.
  Title
The bone morphogenetic protein system in mammalian reproduction.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 25:72-101 (2004)
DOI:10.1210/er.2003-0007
Reference
  Authors
De Robertis EM, Larrain J, Oelgeschlager M, Wessely O.
  Title
The establishment of Spemann's organizer and patterning of the vertebrate embryo.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 1:171-81 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35042039
Reference
  Authors
Gumienny TL, Padgett RW.
  Title
The other side of TGF-beta superfamily signal regulation: thinking outside the cell.
  Journal
Trends Endocrinol Metab 13:295-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1043-2760(02)00615-X
Reference
  Authors
Hamada H, Meno C, Watanabe D, Saijoh Y.
  Title
Establishment of vertebrate left-right asymmetry.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 3:103-13 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrg732
Reference
  Authors
Chang H, Brown CW, Matzuk MM.
  Title
Genetic analysis of the mammalian transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 23:787-823 (2002)
DOI:10.1210/er.2002-0003
Reference
  Authors
Morita K, Chow KL, Ueno N.
  Title
Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family.
  Journal
Development 126:1337-47 (1999)
Reference
PMID:9847239
  Authors
Krishna S, Maduzia LL, Padgett RW.
  Title
Specificity of TGFbeta signaling is conferred by distinct type I receptors and their associated SMAD proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  Journal
Development 126:251-60 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Chen Y, Mironova E, Whitaker LL, Edwards L, Yost HJ, Ramsdell AF.
  Title
ALK4 functions as a receptor for multiple TGF beta-related ligands to regulate left-right axis determination and mesoderm induction in Xenopus.
  Journal
Dev Biol 268:280-94 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2003.12.035
Reference
  Authors
Onichtchouk D, Chen YG, Dosch R, Gawantka V, Delius H, Massague J, Niehrs C
  Title
Silencing of TGF-beta signalling by the pseudoreceptor BAMBI.
  Journal
Nature 401:480-5 (1999)
DOI:10.1038/46794
Reference
  Authors
Yan X, Lin Z, Chen F, Zhao X, Chen H, Ning Y, Chen YG
  Title
Human BAMBI cooperates with Smad7 to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 284:30097-104 (2009)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.049304
Reference
PMID:8093006
  Authors
Hildebrand A, Romaris M, Rasmussen LM, Heinegard D, Twardzik DR, Border WA, Ruoslahti E
  Title
Interaction of the small interstitial proteoglycans biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin with transforming growth factor beta.
  Journal
Biochem J 302 ( Pt 2):527-34 (1994)
DOI:10.1042/bj3020527
Reference
  Authors
Soo C, Hu FY, Zhang X, Wang Y, Beanes SR, Lorenz HP, Hedrick MH, Mackool RJ, Plaas A, Kim SJ, Longaker MT, Freymiller E, Ting K
  Title
Differential expression of fibromodulin, a transforming growth factor-beta modulator, in fetal skin development and scarless repair.
  Journal
Am J Pathol 157:423-33 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/s0002-9440(10)64555-5
Reference
  Authors
Anderson GJ, Frazer DM
  Title
Iron metabolism meets signal transduction.
  Journal
Nat Genet 38:503-4 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/ng0506-503
Reference
  Authors
Canali S, Core AB, Zumbrennen-Bullough KB, Merkulova M, Wang CY, Schneyer AL, Pietrangelo A, Babitt JL
  Title
Activin B Induces Noncanonical SMAD1/5/8 Signaling via BMP Type I Receptors in Hepatocytes: Evidence for a Role in Hepcidin Induction by Inflammation in Male Mice.
  Journal
Endocrinology 157:1146-62 (2016)
DOI:10.1210/en.2015-1747
Reference
  Authors
Ganz T, Nemeth E
  Title
Iron homeostasis in host defence and inflammation.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 15:500-10 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nri3863
Reference
  Authors
Babitt JL, Zhang Y, Samad TA, Xia Y, Tang J, Campagna JA, Schneyer AL, Woolf CJ, Lin HY
  Title
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa), a DRAGON homologue, is a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:29820-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M503511200
Reference
  Authors
Samad TA, Rebbapragada A, Bell E, Zhang Y, Sidis Y, Jeong SJ, Campagna JA, Perusini S, Fabrizio DA, Schneyer AL, Lin HY, Brivanlou AH, Attisano L, Woolf CJ
  Title
DRAGON, a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:14122-9 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M410034200
Related
pathway
map04010  MAPK signaling pathway
map04110  Cell cycle
map04120  Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
map04210  Apoptosis
KO pathway
ko04350   

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