KEGG   PATHWAY: map04710Help
Entry
map04710                    Pathway                                

Name
Circadian rhythm
Description
Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of cell-autonomous transcription-translation feedback loops that drive rhythmic, 24-hour expression patterns of core clock components. The first negative feedback loop is a rhythmic transcription of period genes (PER1, PER2, and PER3) and chryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). PER and CRY proteins form a heterodimer, which acts on the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to repress its own transcription. PER and CRY proteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase epsilon (CKIepsilon), which leads to degradation and restarting of the cycle. The second loop is a positive feedback loop driven by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer, which initiates transcription of target genes containing E-box cis-regulatory enhancer sequences.
Class
Organismal Systems; Environmental adaptation
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map04710  Circadian rhythm
map04710

Ortholog table
Module
M00380  SCF-BTRC complex [PATH:map04710]
Disease
H00688  Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome
Other DBs
GO: 0007623
Reference
  Authors
Camacho F, Cilio M, Guo Y, Virshup DM, Patel K, Khorkova O, Styren S, Morse B, Yao Z, Keesler GA.
  Title
Human casein kinase Idelta phosphorylation of human circadian clock proteins period 1 and 2.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 489:159-65 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02434-0
Reference
  Authors
Panda S, Hogenesch JB, Kay SA.
  Title
Circadian rhythms from flies to human.
  Journal
Nature 417:329-35 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/417329a
Reference
  Authors
Harmer SL, Panda S, Kay SA.
  Title
Molecular bases of circadian rhythms.
  Journal
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17:215-53 (2001)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.17.1.215
Reference
  Authors
Young MW, Kay SA.
  Title
Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 2:702-15 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35088576
Reference
  Authors
Honma S, Kawamoto T, Takagi Y, Fujimoto K, Sato F, Noshiro M, Kato Y, Honma K.
  Title
Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock.
  Journal
Nature 419:841-4 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nature01123
Reference
  Authors
Preitner N, Damiola F, Lopez-Molina L, Zakany J, Duboule D, Albrecht U, Schibler U.
  Title
The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator.
  Journal
Cell 110:251-60 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00825-5
Reference
  Authors
Fu L, Lee CC.
  Title
The circadian clock: pacemaker and tumour suppressor.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:350-61 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1072
Reference
  Authors
Schibler U, Sassone-Corsi P.
  Title
A web of circadian pacemakers.
  Journal
Cell 111:919-22 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01225-4
Reference
  Authors
Hogenesch JB, Gu YZ, Moran SM, Shimomura K, Radcliffe LA, Takahashi JS, Bradfield CA.
  Title
The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP9 is a brain-specific heterodimeric partner of circadian and hypoxia factors.
  Journal
J Neurosci 20:RC83 (2000)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-13-j0002.2000
Reference
  Authors
Shirogane T, Jin J, Ang XL, Harper JW
  Title
SCFbeta-TRCP controls clock-dependent transcription via casein kinase 1-dependent degradation of the mammalian period-1 (Per1) protein.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:26863-72 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M502862200
Reference
  Authors
Busino L, Bassermann F, Maiolica A, Lee C, Nolan PM, Godinho SI, Draetta GF, Pagano M
  Title
SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins.
  Journal
Science 316:900-4 (2007)
DOI:10.1126/science.1141194
Reference
  Authors
Takahashi JS, Hong HK, Ko CH, McDearmon EL
  Title
The genetics of mammalian circadian order and disorder: implications for physiology and disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 9:764-75 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nrg2430
Reference
  Authors
Mertens I, Husson SJ, Janssen T, Lindemans M, Schoofs L
  Title
PACAP and PDF signaling in the regulation of mammalian and insect circadian rhythms.
  Journal
Peptides 28:1775-83 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.05.005
KO pathway
ko04710   

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