KEGG   PATHWAY: map05320
Entry
map05320                    Pathway                                

Name
Autoimmune thyroid disease
Description
The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in serum and varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction. During HT, self-reactive CD4+ T lymphocytes (Th) recruit B cells and CD8+ T cells (CTL) into the thyroid. Disease progression leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Both autoantibodies and thyroid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been proposed to be responsible for autoimmune thyrocyte depletion. In GD, the TSH-R is the most important autoantigen. Antibodies directed against it mimic the effects of the hormone on thyroid cells, TSH, stimulating autonomous production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine and causing hyperthyroidism. The presence of TSH-R-blocking antibodies that bind the TSH receptor in a similar fashion to the antibodies in patients with Grave's disease but that block rather than activate the receptor explains some cases of atrophic hypothyroidism.
Class
Human Diseases; Immune disease
Pathway map
map05320  Autoimmune thyroid disease
map05320

Disease
H00081  Hashimoto thyroiditis
H00082  Graves disease
Reference
  Authors
Fountoulakis S, Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
On the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease: a unifying hypothesis.
  Journal
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:397-409 (2004)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2004.01978.x
Reference
  Authors
Chistiakov DA.
  Title
Immunogenetics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  Journal
J Autoimmune Dis 2:1 (2005)
DOI:10.1186/1740-2557-2-1
Reference
PMID:9534029
  Authors
McIver B, Morris JC.
  Title
The pathogenesis of Graves' disease.
  Journal
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 27:73-89 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70299-1
Reference
  Authors
Stassi G, De Maria R.
  Title
Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 2:195-204 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nri750
Reference
  Authors
Collins J, Gough S.
  Title
Autoimmunity in thyroid disease.
  Journal
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 29 Suppl 2:S417-24 (2002)
DOI:10.1007/s00259-002-0848-8
Reference
  Authors
Ruwhof C, Drexhage HA.
  Title
Iodine and thyroid autoimmune disease in animal models.
  Journal
Thyroid 11:427-36 (2001)
DOI:10.1089/105072501300176381
Reference
  Authors
Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
The role of stress in the clinical expression of thyroid autoimmunity.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1088:382-95 (2006)
DOI:10.1196/annals.1366.015
Reference
  Authors
Prummel MF, Strieder T, Wiersinga WM.
  Title
The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 150:605-18 (2004)
DOI:10.1530/eje.0.1500605
Reference
  Authors
Kopp P.
  Title
The TSH receptor and its role in thyroid disease.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 58:1301-22 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/PL00000941
Related
pathway
map04210  Apoptosis
map04514  Cell adhesion molecules
map04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
map04612  Antigen processing and presentation
map04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
map04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
map04918  Thyroid hormone synthesis
KO pathway
ko05320   

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