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afr00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
afr00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
afr_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:afr00920]
Other DBs
GO: 0006790
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 [GN:afr]
AFE_2971  cysNC; sulfate adenylate transferase, large subunit/adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00955] [EC:]
AFE_3125  cysN; sulfate adenylyltransferase, large subunit [KO:K00956] [EC:]
AFE_2970  cysD-1; sulfate adenylyltransferase, small subunit [KO:K00957] [EC:]
AFE_3124  cysD-2; sulfate adenylyltransferase, small subunit [KO:K00957] [EC:]
AFE_0539  sulfate adenylyltransferase, putative/adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00958] [EC:]
AFE_2973  cysQ; 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
AFE_3123  cysH; adenylylsulfate reductase, thioredoxin dependent [KO:K00390] [EC:]
AFE_3121  cysJ; sulfite reductase (NADPH) flavoprotein, alpha component [KO:K00380] [EC:]
AFE_3122  cysI; sulfite reductase (NADPH) hemoprotein beta-component [KO:K00381] [EC:]
AFE_1792  sulfide-quinone reductase, putative [KO:K17218] [EC:]
AFE_0267  sqr; sulfide quinone reductase, putative [KO:K17218] [EC:]
AFE_2601  pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase [KO:K17218] [EC:]
AFE_3118  pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase [KO:K17218] [EC:]
AFE_0044  doxD_2; DoxD-like family protein [KO:K05908] [EC:]
AFE_0048  doxD_1; DoxD-like family protein [KO:K05908] [EC:]
AFE_0671  cysE-2; serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
AFE_1505  cysE-1; serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
AFE_0293  metX; homoserine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00641] [EC:]
AFE_2063  metZ; O-succinylhomoserine sulfhydrylase [KO:K10764] [EC:2.5.1.-]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
afr00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
afr00270  Cysteine and methionine metabolism
afr00680  Methane metabolism
KO pathway

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