KEGG   PATHWAY: bpy00920Help
Entry
bpy00920                    Pathway                                

Name
Sulfur metabolism - Paraburkholderia phytofirmans
Description
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
bpy00920  Sulfur metabolism
bpy00920

Ortholog table
Module
bpy_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:bpy00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 74223
GO: 0006790
Organism
Paraburkholderia phytofirmans [GN:bpy]
Gene
Bphyt_1773  sulfate ABC transporter, periplasmic sulfate-binding protein [KO:K02048]
Bphyt_0443  sulfate ABC transporter, periplasmic sulfate-binding protein [KO:K02048]
Bphyt_1774  sulfate ABC transporter, inner membrane subunit CysT [KO:K02046]
Bphyt_1775  sulfate ABC transporter, inner membrane subunit CysW [KO:K02047]
Bphyt_1776  sulfate ABC transporter, ATPase subunit [KO:K02045] [EC:3.6.3.25]
Bphyt_4373  taurine ABC transporter, periplasmic binding protein [KO:K15551]
Bphyt_0507  taurine ABC transporter, periplasmic binding protein [KO:K15551]
Bphyt_0509  binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component [KO:K15552]
Bphyt_4371  binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component [KO:K15552]
Bphyt_4372  ABC transporter related [KO:K10831] [EC:3.6.3.36]
Bphyt_0508  ABC transporter related [KO:K10831] [EC:3.6.3.36]
Bphyt_1551  aliphatic sulfonates family ABC transporter, periplsmic ligand-binding protein [KO:K15553]
Bphyt_4880  aliphatic sulfonates family ABC transporter, periplsmic ligand-binding protein [KO:K15553]
Bphyt_7013  aliphatic sulfonates family ABC transporter, periplsmic ligand-binding protein [KO:K15553]
Bphyt_6158  aliphatic sulfonates family ABC transporter, periplsmic ligand-binding protein [KO:K15553]
Bphyt_2096  ABC sulfate ester transporter, periplasmic ligand binding protein [KO:K15553]
Bphyt_1745  binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component [KO:K15554]
Bphyt_2097  binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component [KO:K15554]
Bphyt_2098  binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component [KO:K15554]
Bphyt_1746  ABC transporter related [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
Bphyt_2099  ABC transporter related [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
Bphyt_1546  Alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:1.14.14.5]
Bphyt_1744  Alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:1.14.14.5]
Bphyt_5706  NADPH-dependent FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:1.5.1.38]
Bphyt_0974  sulfate adenylyltransferase, large subunit [KO:K00956] [EC:2.7.7.4]
Bphyt_0973  Sulfate adenylyltransferase [KO:K00957] [EC:2.7.7.4]
Bphyt_1758  Adenylyl-sulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:2.7.1.25]
Bphyt_0972  adenylylsulfate reductase, thioredoxin dependent [KO:K00390] [EC:1.8.4.10 1.8.4.8]
Bphyt_4940  molybdopterin oxidoreductase [KO:K21307] [EC:1.8.5.6]
Bphyt_4941  4Fe-4S ferredoxin iron-sulfur binding domain protein [KO:K21308]
Bphyt_4942  DMSO reductase anchor subunit (DmsC) [KO:K21309]
Bphyt_1985  molybdopterin oxidoreductase [KO:K00380] [EC:1.8.1.2]
Bphyt_0970  Ferredoxin--nitrite reductase [KO:K00381] [EC:1.8.1.2]
Bphyt_4515  Sulfite reductase (ferredoxin) [KO:K00381] [EC:1.8.1.2]
Bphyt_6785  Rhodanese domain protein [KO:K01011] [EC:2.8.1.2 2.8.1.1]
Bphyt_6012  putative hexapeptide transferase family protein [KO:K00640] [EC:2.3.1.30]
Bphyt_4287  Serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:2.3.1.30]
Bphyt_2515  serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:2.3.1.30]
Bphyt_2993  cysteine synthase B [KO:K12339] [EC:2.5.1.47]
Bphyt_6834  O-succinylhomoserine sulfhydrylase [KO:K10764] [EC:2.5.1.-]
Bphyt_1925  AMP-dependent synthetase and ligase [KO:K20034] [EC:6.2.1.44]
Bphyt_2983  acyl-CoA dehydrogenase domain protein [KO:K20035] [EC:1.3.8.-]
Compound
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Reference
  Authors
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
  Title
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.09.001
Reference
  Authors
Fauque GD, Barton LL
  Title
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
  Journal
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-398264-3.00001-2
Reference
  Authors
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
  Title
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s11120-010-9531-2
Reference
  Authors
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
  Title
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02370.x
Reference
  Authors
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
  Title
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2011.00116
Reference
  Authors
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
  Title
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
DOI:10.1128/JB.188.4.1473-1488.2006
Reference
PMID:9695921
  Authors
Pott AS, Dahl C
  Title
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
  Journal
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
DOI:10.1099/00221287-144-7-1881
Reference
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
  Title
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-2911(08)00002-7
KO pathway
ko00920   

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