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Sulfur metabolism - Escherichia coli clone D i2
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
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Pathway map
eld00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
eld_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:eld00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 613246
GO: 0006790
Escherichia coli clone D i2 [GN:eld]
i02_2757  cysP; thiosulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02048]
i02_4462  sbp; sulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02048]
i02_2756  cysU; sulfate/thiosulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02046]
i02_2755  cysW; sulfate/thiosulfate transporter permease [KO:K02047]
i02_2754  cysA; sulfate/thiosulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02045] [EC:]
i02_0454  tauA; taurine transporter substrate binding subunit [KO:K15551]
i02_0457  tauC; taurine transporter subunit [KO:K15552]
i02_0455  tauB; taurine transporter ATP-binding subunit [KO:K10831] [EC:]
i02_0458  tauD; taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
i02_0987  ycbO; alkanesulfonate transporter substrate-binding component [KO:K15553]
i02_0985  ssuC; alkanesulfonate transporter permease subunit [KO:K15554]
i02_0984  ssuB; aliphatic sulfonates transport ATP-binding component [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
i02_0986  ycbN; alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
i02_0988  ycbP; NAD(P)H-dependent FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
i02_3045  cysN; sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [KO:K00956] [EC:]
i02_3046  cysD; sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
i02_3044  cysC; adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
i02_4816  cysQ; adenosine-3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
i02_3048  cysH; phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase [KO:K00390] [EC:]
i02_3050  cysJ; sulfite reductase subunit alpha [KO:K00380] [EC:]
i02_3049  cysI; sulfite reductase subunit beta [KO:K00381] [EC:]
i02_1886  ydhU; PhsC protein [KO:K08354]
i02_2839  sseA; 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
i02_3874  glpE; thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K02439] [EC:]
i02_4093  cysE; serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
i02_2746  cysK; cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
i02_2753  cysM; cysteine synthase B [KO:K12339] [EC:]
i02_4560  metA; homoserine O-succinyltransferase [KO:K00651] [EC:]
i02_4484  metB; cystathionine gamma-synthase [KO:K01739] [EC:]
i02_0945  dmsA; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain A [KO:K07306] [EC:]
i02_0946  dmsB; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain B [KO:K07307]
i02_0947  dmsC; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain C [KO:K07308]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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