KEGG   PATHWAY: ko01057Help
Entry
ko01057                     Pathway                                

Name
Biosynthesis of type II polyketide products
Class
Metabolism; Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko01057  Biosynthesis of type II polyketide products
ko01057

Ortholog table
Module
M00779  Dihydrokalafungin biosynthesis, octaketide => dihydrokalafungin [PATH:ko01057]
M00780  Tetracycline/oxytetracycline biosynthesis, pretetramide => tetracycline/oxytetracycline [PATH:ko01057]
M00781  Nogalavinone/aklavinone biosynthesis, deoxynogalonate/deoxyaklanonate => nogalavinone/aklavinone [PATH:ko01057]
M00782  Mithramycin biosynthesis, 4-demethylpremithramycinone => mithramycin [PATH:ko01057]
M00783  Tetracenomycin C/8-demethyltetracenomycin C biosynthesis, tetracenomycin F2 => tetracenomycin C/8-demethyltetracenomycin C [PATH:ko01057]
M00784  Elloramycin biosynthesis, 8-demethyltetracenomycin C => elloramycin A [PATH:ko01057]
M00823  Chlortetracycline biosynthesis, pretetramide => chlortetracycline [PATH:ko01057]
Orthology
K05555  cyclase [EC:4.-.-.-]
K05556  ketoreductase RED1 [EC:1.1.1.-]
K14626  actinorhodin biosynthesis protein ActVIA
K14627  dehydratase [EC:4.2.1.-]
K14628  enoyl reductase
K14629  enoyl reductase
K14630  two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase [EC:1.14.14.-]
K14631  flavin reductase ActVB [EC:1.5.1.-]
K14632  C-6 monooxygenase
K14633  ketoreductase RED2 [EC:1.1.1.-]
K14250  cyclase
K14251  C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K14252  6-methylpretetramide 4-monooxygenase / 4-hydroxy-6-methylpretetramide 12a-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.13.233 1.14.13.232]
K14253  6-methylpretetramide 4-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.13.232]
K14254  aminotransferase
K14255  4-amino-anhydrotetracycline N4-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.335]
K14256  anhydrotetracycline 6-monooxygenase / 5a,11a-dehydrotetracycline 5-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.13.234 1.14.13.38]
K21301  5a,11a-dehydrotetracycline reductase [EC:1.3.98.4]
K14257  tetracycline 7-halogenase / FADH2 O2-dependent halogenase [EC:1.14.19.- 1.14.19.49]
K21297  flavin reductase (NADH) [EC:1.5.1.36]
K15926  cyclase
K15927  oxygenase
K15928  bifunctional hydroxylase/dehydrase
K15929  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15930  bifunctional oxygenase/reductase
K15931  glycosyltransferase
K15932  reductase LndZ4
K15933  oxygenase LndZ5
K15934  D-olivosyltransferase
K15935  L-rhodinosyltransferase
K15936  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15937  glycosyltransferase
K15938  glycosyltransferase
K15939  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15941  deoxynogalonate / 12-deoxyaklanonic acid monooxygenase [EC:1.13.12.- 1.13.12.22]
K15942  O-methyltransferase / aklanonic acid methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.288 2.1.1.-]
K15943  nogalonic acid methyl ester cyclase / aklanonic acid methyl ester cyclase [EC:5.5.1.23 5.5.1.26]
K15944  nogalaviketone/aklaviketone reductase [EC:1.1.1.362 1.1.1.-]
K15945  C-1 hydroxylase
K15946  aklavinone 7-alpha-L-rhodosaminyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.326]
K15947  aklavinone 7-alpha-L-rhodosaminyltransferase auxiliary protein
K15948  aclacinomycin-T 2-deoxy-L-fucose transferase [EC:2.4.1.327]
K15949  aclacinomycin-N/aclacinomycin-A oxidase [EC:1.3.3.14 1.1.3.45]
K15950  aklavinone 12-hydroxylase [EC:1.14.13.180]
K15951  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15952  glycosyltransferase auxiliary protein
K15953  10-carbomethoxy-13-deoxycarminomycin esterase
K15954  carminomycin 4-O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.292]
K15955  13-deoxydaunorubicin hydroxylase [EC:1.14.13.181]
K15956  daunorubicin C-13 ketoreductase
K15957  aclacinomycin methylesterase [EC:3.1.1.95]
K15958  SAM-dependent hydroxylase
K15959  O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K15960  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15961  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15962  D-mycarose 3-C-methyltransferase
K15963  C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K15964  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15965  glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K15966  monooxygenase [EC:1.14.13.-]
K15967  ketoreductase
K15968  tetracenomycin F2 cyclase [EC:4.2.1.154]
K15969  tetracenomycin F1 monooxygenase [EC:1.13.12.21]
K15886  multifunctional cyclase / dehydratase / O-methyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.235]
K15970  8-O-methyltransferase
K15971  O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K15972  tetracenomycin A2 monooxygenase-dioxygenase [EC:1.14.13.200]
K19566  8-demethyltetracenomycin C L-rhamnosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.331]
K19567  8-demethyl-8-alpha-L-rhamnosyltetracenomycin-C 2'-O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.305]
K19568  8-demethyl-8-(2-methoxy-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin-C 3'-O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.306]
K19569  8-demethyl-8-(2,3-dimethoxy-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin-C 4'-O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.307]
K19570  8-demethyl-8-(2,3,4-trimethoxy-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin-C O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
Compound
C00061  FMN
C01661  Doxorubicin
C01847  Reduced FMN
C01907  Daunorubicin
C02811  Anhydrotetracycline
C03206  5a,11a-Dehydrotetracycline
C06570  Tetracycline
C06571  Chlortetracycline
C06624  Oxytetracycline
C06627  4-Keto-anhydrotetracycline
C06628  4-Hydroxy-6-methylpretetramide
C06629  6-Methylpretetramide
C06654  4-Amino-anhydrotetracycline
C06691  Actinorhodin
C06799  Granaticin
C06801  Tetracenomycin C
C12366  Tetracenomycin F2
C12367  Tetracenomycin F1
C12368  Tetracenomycin D3
C12369  Tetracenomycin B3
C12370  Tetracenomycin E
C12371  Tetracenomycin A2
C12373  Tetracenomycin F1 methylester
C12374  Decarboxytetracenomycin F1
C12375  Tetracenomycin D3 methylester
C12376  Tetracenomycin D1
C12377  Tetracenomycin B1
C12378  Tetracenomycin B2
C12379  8-Demethyltetracenomycin C
C12380  Tetracenomycin X
C12381  Elloramycin A
C12382  4-Demethylpremithramycinone
C12383  Premithramycinone
C12384  Premithramycin A1
C12385  Premithramycin A2'
C12386  Premithramycin A3'
C12387  Premithramycin A3
C12388  Premithramycin B
C12389  Mithramycin
C12390  Dehydrorabelomycin
C12391  Kinobscurinone
C12392  Stealthin C
C12393  Prekinamycin
C12394  Kinamycin D
C12395  Jadomycin B
C12396  Tetrangomycin
C12397  Tetrangulol
C12398  8-O-Methyltetrangulol
C12399  19-Hydroxytetrangulol
C12400  19-Hydroxy-8-O-methyltetrangulol
C12401  PD116740
C12402  Rabelomycin
C12404  Urdamycinone B
C12405  100-1
C12406  Urdamycin B
C12407  104-2
C12408  100-2
C12409  124-1
C12410  Urdamycinone F
C12411  Urdamycin F
C12412  Aquayamycin
C12413  Urdamycin A
C12414  Urdamycin G
C12415  Methyl nogalonate
C12416  Nogalonate
C12417  Auraviketone
C12418  Dihydro-NAME
C12419  Auramycinone
C12420  12-Deoxyaklanonic acid
C12421  Aklanonate
C12422  Methyl aklanonate
C12423  Aklaviketone
C12424  Aklavinone
C12425  epsilon-Rhodomycinone
C12426  Rhodomycin D
C12427  10-Carboxy-13-deoxycarminomycin
C12428  13-Deoxycarminomycin
C12429  13-Deoxydaunorubicin
C12430  13-Dihydrodaunorubicin
C12431  13-Dihydrocarminomycin
C12432  Carminomycin
C12433  (13S)-13-Dihydrodaunorubicin
C12434  (S)-DNPA
C12435  6-Deoxydihydrokalafungin
C12436  Dihydrokalafungin
C12437  Medermycin
C12451  Fridamycin E
C18293  Nonaketamide monocyclic intermediate
C18294  Nonaketamide tricyclic intermediate
C18295  Pretetramid
C18296  5a,11a-Dehydrooxytetracycline
C18329  7,9,12-Octaketide intermediate 3
C18332  7,9,12-Decaketide intermediate 3
C18335  7,9,12-Decaketide intermediate 6
C18336  7,12-Decaketide intermediate 1
C18337  9,14-Decaketide intermediate 1
C18353  Octaketide bicyclic intermediate
C18354  (S)-Chiral alcohol
C18355  (R)-Chiral alcohol
C18356  (S)-Hemiketal
C18357  (R)-Hemiketal
C18358  DHKred-OH
C18359  Dihydrogranaticin
C18360  Dihydrokalafungin dihydroquinone form
C18629  Deoxynogalonate
C18630  Nogalaviketone
C18631  Nogalavinone
C18632  1-OH-Nogalamycinone
C18633  Nogalamycin
C18634  Aclacinomycin T
C18635  Aclacinomycin S
C18637  Aclacinomycin N
C18638  Aclacinomycin A
C18639  Aclacinomycin Y
C18640  epsilon-Rhodomycin T
C18641  15-Demethoxy-epsilon-rhodomycin
C18642  beta-Rhodomycin
C18678  UWM6
C18679  2,3-Dehydro-UWM6
C18680  Jadomycin A
C18681  C1'-C9-Glycosylated UWM6
C18682  11-Deoxylandomycinone
C18683  Landomycin H
C18684  Landomycin D
C18685  Landomycin E
C18709  Decaketide tricyclic intermediate
C18710  3A-Deolivosylpremithramycin B
C18711  Mithramycin DK
C18778  8-D-Olivosyl-landomycin
C18835  (R)-DNPA
C20689  15-Demethylaclacinomycin T
C20974  8-Demethyl-8-alpha-L-rhamnosyltetracenomycin C
C20975  8-Demethyl-8-(2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin C
C20976  8-Demethyl-8-(2,3-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin C
C20977  8-Demethyl-8-(2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin C
Reference
  Authors
Taguchi T, Okamoto S, Lezhava A, Li A, Ochi K, Ebizuka Y, Ichinose K
  Title
Possible involvement of ActVI-ORFA in transcriptional regulation of actVI tailoring-step genes for actinorhodin biosynthesis.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 269:234-9 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00627.x
Reference
  Authors
Ichinose K, Ozawa M, Itou K, Kunieda K, Ebizuka Y
  Title
Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the medermycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. AM-7161: towards comparative analysis of the benzoisochromanequinone gene clusters.
  Journal
Microbiology 149:1633-45 (2003)
DOI:10.1099/mic.0.26310-0
Reference
  Authors
Li A, Itoh T, Taguchi T, Xiang T, Ebizuka Y, Ichinose K
  Title
Functional studies on a ketoreductase gene from Streptomyces sp. AM-7161 to control the stereochemistry in medermycin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Bioorg Med Chem 13:6856-63 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2005.07.060
Reference
PMID:9831526
  Authors
Ichinose K, Bedford DJ, Tornus D, Bechthold A, Bibb MJ, Revill WP, Floss HG, Hopwood DA
  Title
The granaticin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22: sequence analysis and expression in a heterologous host.
  Journal
Chem Biol 5:647-59 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S1074-5521(98)90292-7
Reference
  Authors
Hopwood DA
  Title
Genetic Contributions to Understanding Polyketide Synthases.
  Journal
Chem Rev 97:2465-2498 (1997)
DOI:10.1021/cr960034i
Reference
PMID:7929165
  Authors
Fernandez-Moreno MA, Martinez E, Caballero JL, Ichinose K, Hopwood DA, Malpartida F
  Title
DNA sequence and functions of the actVI region of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
  Journal
J Biol Chem 269:24854-63 (1994)
Reference
  Authors
Itoh T, Taguchi T, Kimberley MR, Booker-Milburn KI, Stephenson GR, Ebizuka Y, Ichinose K
  Title
Actinorhodin biosynthesis: structural requirements for post-PKS tailoring intermediates revealed by functional analysis of ActVI-ORF1 reductase.
  Journal
Biochemistry 46:8181-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1021/bi700190p
Reference
  Authors
Ichinose K, Taguchi T, Bedford DJ, Ebizuka Y, Hopwood DA
  Title
Functional complementation of pyran ring formation in actinorhodin biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by ketoreductase genes for granaticin biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 183:3247-50 (2001)
DOI:10.1128/JB.183.10.3247-3250.2001
Reference
  Authors
Taguchi T, Ebizuka Y, Hopwood DA, Ichinose K
  Title
A new mode of stereochemical control revealed by analysis of the biosynthesis of dihydrogranaticin in Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22.
  Journal
J Am Chem Soc 123:11376-80 (2001)
DOI:10.1021/ja015981+
Reference
  Authors
Taguchi T, Kunieda K, Takeda-Shitaka M, Takaya D, Kawano N, Kimberley MR, Booker-Milburn KI, Stephenson GR, Umeyama H, Ebizuka Y, Ichinose K
  Title
Remarkably different structures and reaction mechanisms of ketoreductases for the opposite stereochemical control in the biosynthesis of BIQ antibiotics.
  Journal
Bioorg Med Chem 12:5917-27 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.08.026
Reference
  Authors
Okamoto S, Taguchi T, Ochi K, Ichinose K
  Title
Biosynthesis of actinorhodin and related antibiotics: discovery of alternative routes for quinone formation encoded in the act gene cluster.
  Journal
Chem Biol 16:226-36 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.01.015
Reference
  Authors
Valton J, Mathevon C, Fontecave M, Niviere V, Ballou DP
  Title
Mechanism and regulation of the Two-component FMN-dependent monooxygenase ActVA-ActVB from Streptomyces coelicolor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 283:10287-96 (2008)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M709730200
Reference
  Authors
Valton J, Fontecave M, Douki T, Kendrew SG, Niviere V
  Title
An aromatic hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by a two-component FMN-dependent Monooxygenase. The ActVA-ActVB system from Streptomyces coelicolor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 281:27-35 (2006)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M506146200
Reference
  Authors
Valton J, Filisetti L, Fontecave M, Niviere V
  Title
A two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase involved in actinorhodin biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:44362-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M407722200
Reference
  Authors
Ellis HR
  Title
The FMN-dependent two-component monooxygenase systems.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 497:1-12 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2010.02.007
Reference
  Authors
Filisetti L, Fontecave M, Niviere V
  Title
Mechanism and substrate specificity of the flavin reductase ActVB from Streptomyces coelicolor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:296-303 (2003)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M209689200
Reference
PMID:9209048
  Authors
Kendrew SG, Hopwood DA, Marsh EN
  Title
Identification of a monooxygenase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) involved in biosynthesis of actinorhodin: purification and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 179:4305-10 (1997)
DOI:10.1128/JB.179.13.4305-4310.1997
Reference
  Authors
Sciara G, Kendrew SG, Miele AE, Marsh NG, Federici L, Malatesta F, Schimperna G, Savino C, Vallone B
  Title
The structure of ActVA-Orf6, a novel type of monooxygenase involved in actinorhodin biosynthesis.
  Journal
EMBO J 22:205-15 (2003)
DOI:10.1093/emboj/cdg031
Reference
  Authors
Fetzner S, Steiner RA
  Title
Cofactor-independent oxidases and oxygenases.
  Journal
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:791-804 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s00253-010-2455-0
Reference
  Authors
Krohn K (ed).
  Title
Anthracycline Chemistry and Biology I : Biological Occurence and Biosynthesis, Synthesis and Chemistry
  Journal
Topics in Current Chemistry 282 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Torkkell S, Kunnari T, Palmu K, Mantsala P, Hakala J, Ylihonko K
  Title
The entire nogalamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces nogalater: characterization of a 20-kb DNA region and generation of hybrid structures.
  Journal
Mol Genet Genomics 266:276-88 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/s004380100554
Reference
  Authors
Grocholski T, Koskiniemi H, Lindqvist Y, Mantsala P, Niemi J, Schneider G
  Title
Crystal structure of the cofactor-independent monooxygenase SnoaB from Streptomyces nogalater: implications for the reaction mechanism.
  Journal
Biochemistry 49:934-44 (2010)
DOI:10.1021/bi901985b
Reference
  Authors
Koskiniemi H, Grocholski T, Schneider G, Niemi J
  Title
Expression, purification and crystallization of the cofactor-independent monooxygenase SnoaB from the nogalamycin biosynthetic pathway.
  Journal
Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 65:256-9 (2009)
DOI:10.1107/S1744309109001389
Reference
  Authors
Chung JY, Fujii I, Harada S, Sankawa U, Ebizuka Y
  Title
Expression, purification, and characterization of AknX anthrone oxygenase, which is involved in aklavinone biosynthesis in Streptomyces galilaeus.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 184:6115-22 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/JB.184.22.6115-6122.2002
Reference
PMID:7836284
  Authors
Dickens ML, Ye J, Strohl WR
  Title
Analysis of clustered genes encoding both early and late steps in daunomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces sp. strain C5.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 177:536-43 (1995)
DOI:10.1128/JB.177.3.536-543.1995
Reference
  Authors
Torkkell S, Kunnari T, Palmu K, Hakala J, Mantsala P, Ylihonko K
  Title
Identification of a cyclase gene dictating the C-9 stereochemistry of anthracyclines from Streptomyces nogalater.
  Journal
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:396-9 (2000)
DOI:10.1128/AAC.44.2.396-399.2000
Reference
  Authors
Sultana A, Kallio P, Jansson A, Wang JS, Niemi J, Mantsala P, Schneider G
  Title
Structure of the polyketide cyclase SnoaL reveals a novel mechanism for enzymatic aldol condensation.
  Journal
EMBO J 23:1911-21 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600201
Reference
  Authors
Kallio P, Sultana A, Niemi J, Mantsala P, Schneider G
  Title
Crystal structure of the polyketide cyclase AknH with bound substrate and product analogue: implications for catalytic mechanism and product stereoselectivity.
  Journal
J Mol Biol 357:210-20 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.064
Reference
PMID:8655529
  Authors
Dickens ML, Ye J, Strohl WR
  Title
Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of aklaviketone reductase from Streptomyces sp. strain C5.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 178:3384-8 (1996)
DOI:10.1128/JB.178.11.3384-3388.1996
Reference
  Authors
Leimkuhler C, Fridman M, Lupoli T, Walker S, Walsh CT, Kahne D
  Title
Characterization of rhodosaminyl transfer by the AknS/AknT glycosylation complex and its use in reconstituting the biosynthetic pathway of aclacinomycin A.
  Journal
J Am Chem Soc 129:10546-50 (2007)
DOI:10.1021/ja072909o
Reference
  Authors
Lu W, Leimkuhler C, Gatto GJ Jr, Kruger RG, Oberthur M, Kahne D, Walsh CT
  Title
AknT is an activating protein for the glycosyltransferase AknS in L-aminodeoxysugar transfer to the aglycone of aclacinomycin A.
  Journal
Chem Biol 12:527-34 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2005.02.016
Reference
  Authors
Lu W, Leimkuhler C, Oberthur M, Kahne D, Walsh CT
  Title
AknK is an L-2-deoxyfucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline aclacinomycin A.
  Journal
Biochemistry 43:4548-58 (2004)
DOI:10.1021/bi035945i
Reference
  Authors
Alexeev I, Sultana A, Mantsala P, Niemi J, Schneider G
  Title
Aclacinomycin oxidoreductase (AknOx) from the biosynthetic pathway of the antibiotic aclacinomycin is an unusual flavoenzyme with a dual active site.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6170-5 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0700579104
Reference
  Authors
Lindqvist Y, Koskiniemi H, Jansson A, Sandalova T, Schnell R, Liu Z, Mantsala P, Niemi J, Schneider G
  Title
Structural basis for substrate recognition and specificity in aklavinone-11-hydroxylase from rhodomycin biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Mol Biol 393:966-77 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.09.003
Reference
  Authors
Malla S, Niraula NP, Singh B, Liou K, Sohng JK
  Title
Limitations in doxorubicin production from Streptomyces peucetius.
  Journal
Microbiol Res 165:427-35 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.micres.2009.11.006
Reference
PMID:7592454
  Authors
Otten SL, Liu X, Ferguson J, Hutchinson CR
  Title
Cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces peucetius dnrQS genes encoding a daunosamine biosynthesis enzyme and a glycosyl transferase involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 177:6688-92 (1995)
DOI:10.1128/JB.177.22.6688-6692.1995
Reference
  Authors
Malla S, Niraula NP, Liou K, Sohng JK
  Title
Enhancement of doxorubicin production by expression of structural sugar biosynthesis and glycosyltransferase genes in Streptomyces peucetius.
  Journal
J Biosci Bioeng 108:92-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.03.002
Reference
PMID:9098063
  Authors
Dickens ML, Priestley ND, Strohl WR
  Title
In vivo and in vitro bioconversion of epsilon-rhodomycinone glycoside to doxorubicin: functions of DauP, DauK, and DoxA.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 179:2641-50 (1997)
DOI:10.1128/JB.179.8.2641-2650.1997
Reference
PMID:9864344
  Authors
Lomovskaya N, Otten SL, Doi-Katayama Y, Fonstein L, Liu XC, Takatsu T, Inventi-Solari A, Filippini S, Torti F, Colombo AL, Hutchinson CR
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Doxorubicin overproduction in Streptomyces peucetius: cloning and characterization of the dnrU ketoreductase and dnrV genes and the doxA cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase gene.
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