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pba00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. brassicacearum NFM421
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
pba00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
pba_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:pba00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 216846
GO: 0006790
Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. brassicacearum NFM421 [GN:pba]
PSEBR_a182  Sulfate ABC transporter, periplasmic component [KO:K02048]
PSEBR_a4163  Sulfate ABC transporter, periplasmic component [KO:K02048]
PSEBR_a183  Sulfate ABC transporter, permease component [KO:K02046]
PSEBR_a184  Sulfate ABC transporter, permease component [KO:K02047]
PSEBR_a185  Sulfate ABC transporter, ATP-binding component [KO:K02045] [EC:]
PSEBR_a277  Taurine ABC transporter, periplasmic component [KO:K15551]
PSEBR_a275  Taurine ABC transporter, permease component [KO:K15552]
PSEBR_a276  Taurine ABC transporter, ATP-binding component [KO:K10831] [EC:]
PSEBR_a274  Taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
PSEBR_a210  Putative taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2867  putative taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
PSEBR_a5412  putative ABC transporter, periplasmic component [KO:K15553]
PSEBR_a5410  putative ABC transporter, permease component [KO:K15554]
PSEBR_a5409  putative ABC transporter, ATP-binding component [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
PSEBR_a2292  alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
PSEBR_a5411  alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
PSEBR_a974  Hypothetical protein [KO:K00299] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2295  putative FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2614  putative NADPH-dependent FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
PSEBR_a5413  FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
PSEBR_a4725  Putative bifunctional protein: sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1; adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00955] [EC:]
PSEBR_a4726  Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
PSEBR_a500  Adenylyl-sulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
PSEBR_a300  Putative 3,5-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
PSEBR_a3965  Putative Adenylyl-sulfate reductase (glutathione) [KO:K00390] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2663  conserved hypothetical protein [KO:K17226]
PSEBR_a795  putative transport-related membrane protein; iron-uptake factor [KO:K00380] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2540  putative oxidoreductase, FAD-binding subunit [KO:K00380] [EC:]
PSEBR_a1943  putative sulfite reductase (ferredoxin) [KO:K00381] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2511  Putative oxidoreductase [KO:K17218] [EC:]
PSEBR_a528  Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
PSEBR_a5343  putative sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
PSEBR_a5141  putative thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K02439] [EC:]
PSEBR_a923  putative Serine O-acetyltransferase, (putative serine acetyltransferase) [KO:K00640] [EC:]
PSEBR_a2157  serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
PSEBR_a1175  Conserved hypothetical protein; putative [KO:K01738] [EC:]
PSEBR_a1390  Cysteine synthase [KO:K01738] [EC:]
PSEBR_a4260  Cysteine synthase [KO:K12339] [EC:]
PSEBR_a5002  putative cystathionine gamma-synthase [KO:K01739] [EC:]
PSEBR_a3854  O-succinylhomoserine sulfhydrylase [KO:K10764] [EC:2.5.1.-]
PSEBR_a2615  luciferase-like monooxygenase [KO:K17228] [EC:]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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