KEGG   PATHWAY: rno04710
Entry
rno04710                    Pathway                                

Name
Circadian rhythm - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
Description
Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of cell-autonomous transcription-translation feedback loops that drive rhythmic, 24-hour expression patterns of core clock components. The first negative feedback loop is a rhythmic transcription of period genes (PER1, PER2, and PER3) and chryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). PER and CRY proteins form a heterodimer, which acts on the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to repress its own transcription. PER and CRY proteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase epsilon (CKIepsilon), which leads to degradation and restarting of the cycle. The second loop is a positive feedback loop driven by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer, which initiates transcription of target genes containing E-box cis-regulatory enhancer sequences.
Class
Organismal Systems; Environmental adaptation
Pathway map
rno04710  Circadian rhythm
rno04710

Other DBs
GO: 0007623
Organism
Rattus norvegicus (rat) [GN:rno]
Gene
64462  Csnk1d; casein kinase I isoform delta [KO:K08959] [EC:2.7.11.1]
58822  Csnk1e; casein kinase I [KO:K08960] [EC:2.7.11.1]
287422  Per1; period circadian protein homolog 1 [KO:K21944]
63840  Per2; period circadian protein homolog 2 [KO:K02633]
78962  Per3; period circadian protein homolog 3 [KO:K21945]
299691  Cry1; cryptochrome-1 [KO:K02295]
170917  Cry2; cryptochrome-2 [KO:K02295]
29657  Arntl; aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 [KO:K02296]
60447  Clock; circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput isoform 1 [KO:K02223] [EC:2.3.1.48]
316351  Npas2; neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 2 [KO:K09026]
252917  Nr1d1; nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 isoform 1 [KO:K03728]
300807  Rora; nuclear receptor ROR-alpha isoform X3 [KO:K08532]
309288  Rorb; nuclear receptor ROR-beta [KO:K08533]
368158  Rorc; nuclear receptor ROR-gamma isoform X1 [KO:K08534]
79431  Bhlhe40; class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 [KO:K03729]
117095  Bhlhe41; class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 41 [KO:K03730]
300084  Rbx1; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RBX1 [KO:K03868] [EC:2.3.2.32]
362356  Cul1; cullin-1 [KO:K03347]
287280  Skp1; S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 [KO:K03094]
303024  Fbxw11; F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 11 [KO:K03362]
361765  Btrc; F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 1A [KO:K03362]
306129  Fbxl3; F-box/LRR-repeat protein 3 [KO:K10269]
65248  Prkaa1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
78975  Prkaa2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
83803  Prkab1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1 [KO:K07199]
64562  Prkab2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2 [KO:K07199]
25520  Prkag1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1 [KO:K07200]
373545  Prkag2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-2 [KO:K07200]
301518  Prkag3; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-3 [KO:K07200]
81646  Creb1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 isoform A [KO:K05870]
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
Reference
  Authors
Camacho F, Cilio M, Guo Y, Virshup DM, Patel K, Khorkova O, Styren S, Morse B, Yao Z, Keesler GA.
  Title
Human casein kinase Idelta phosphorylation of human circadian clock proteins period 1 and 2.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 489:159-65 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02434-0
Reference
  Authors
Panda S, Hogenesch JB, Kay SA.
  Title
Circadian rhythms from flies to human.
  Journal
Nature 417:329-35 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/417329a
Reference
  Authors
Harmer SL, Panda S, Kay SA.
  Title
Molecular bases of circadian rhythms.
  Journal
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17:215-53 (2001)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.17.1.215
Reference
  Authors
Young MW, Kay SA.
  Title
Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 2:702-15 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35088576
Reference
  Authors
Honma S, Kawamoto T, Takagi Y, Fujimoto K, Sato F, Noshiro M, Kato Y, Honma K.
  Title
Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock.
  Journal
Nature 419:841-4 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nature01123
Reference
  Authors
Preitner N, Damiola F, Lopez-Molina L, Zakany J, Duboule D, Albrecht U, Schibler U.
  Title
The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator.
  Journal
Cell 110:251-60 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00825-5
Reference
  Authors
Fu L, Lee CC.
  Title
The circadian clock: pacemaker and tumour suppressor.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:350-61 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1072
Reference
  Authors
Schibler U, Sassone-Corsi P.
  Title
A web of circadian pacemakers.
  Journal
Cell 111:919-22 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01225-4
Reference
  Authors
Hogenesch JB, Gu YZ, Moran SM, Shimomura K, Radcliffe LA, Takahashi JS, Bradfield CA.
  Title
The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP9 is a brain-specific heterodimeric partner of circadian and hypoxia factors.
  Journal
J Neurosci 20:RC83 (2000)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-13-j0002.2000
Reference
  Authors
Shirogane T, Jin J, Ang XL, Harper JW
  Title
SCFbeta-TRCP controls clock-dependent transcription via casein kinase 1-dependent degradation of the mammalian period-1 (Per1) protein.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:26863-72 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M502862200
Reference
  Authors
Busino L, Bassermann F, Maiolica A, Lee C, Nolan PM, Godinho SI, Draetta GF, Pagano M
  Title
SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins.
  Journal
Science 316:900-4 (2007)
DOI:10.1126/science.1141194
Reference
  Authors
Takahashi JS, Hong HK, Ko CH, McDearmon EL
  Title
The genetics of mammalian circadian order and disorder: implications for physiology and disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 9:764-75 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nrg2430
Reference
  Authors
Mertens I, Husson SJ, Janssen T, Lindemans M, Schoofs L
  Title
PACAP and PDF signaling in the regulation of mammalian and insect circadian rhythms.
  Journal
Peptides 28:1775-83 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.05.005
Related
pathway
rno04010  MAPK signaling pathway
rno04120  Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
rno04713  Circadian entrainment
KO pathway
ko04710   

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