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Sulfur metabolism - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis P125109
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
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Pathway map
set00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
set_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:set00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 75205
GO: 0006790
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis P125109 [GN:set]
SEN2425  cysP; thiosulphate-binding protein precursor [KO:K02048]
SEN3853  sbp; periplasmic sulphate binding protein [KO:K02048]
SEN2424  cysU; sulphate transport system permease protein CysT [KO:K02046]
SEN2423  cysW; sulphate transport system permease protein CysW [KO:K02047]
SEN2422  cysA; sulphate transport ATP-binding protein CysA [KO:K02045] [EC:]
SEN2773  cysN; Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [KO:K00956] [EC:]
SEN2774  cysD; Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
SEN2772  cysC; Adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
SEN4172  cysQ; cysQ protein [KO:K01082] [EC:]
SEN2785  cysH; Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase [KO:K00390] [EC:]
SEN2787  cysJ; sulfite reductase (NADPH) flavoprotein beta subunit [KO:K00380] [EC:]
SEN2786  cysI; sulfite reductase (NADPH) hemoprotein alpha subunit [KO:K00381] [EC:]
SEN2528  asrA; anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit A [KO:K16950]
SEN2529  asrB; anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit B [KO:K16951]
SEN2530  asrC; anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit C [KO:K00385]
SEN1662  ttrA; tetrathionate reductase subunit A [KO:K08357]
SEN1660  ttrB; tetrathionate reductase subunit B [KO:K08358]
SEN1661  ttrC; tetrathionate reductase subunit C (membrane protein) [KO:K08359]
SEN2063  phsA; thiosulfate reductase precursor [KO:K08352] [EC:]
SEN2062  phsB; thiosulfate reductase electron transport protein PhsB [KO:K08353]
SEN2061  phsC; thiosulfate reductase cytochrome b subunit [KO:K08354]
SEN2513  sseA; putative thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
SEN3350  glpE; conserved hypothetical protein [KO:K02439] [EC:]
SEN3521  cysE; serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
SEN2411  cysK; cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SEN0440  putative lyase [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SEN2421  cysM; cysteine synthase B [KO:K12339] [EC:]
SEN3964  metA; homoserine O-succinyltransferase [KO:K00651] [EC:]
SEN3890  metB; cystathionine gamma-synthase [KO:K01739] [EC:]
SEN2510  dimethyl sulfoxide reductase [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SEN0869  dmsA; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain A precursor [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SEN0870  dmsB; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain B [KO:K07307]
SEN4078  dmsB2; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain B [KO:K07307]
SEN1553  dmsB1; putative anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase [KO:K07307]
SEN2509  putative anaerobic reductase component [KO:K07307]
SEN2508  putative anaerobic reductase component [KO:K07308]
SEN0871  dmsC; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain C [KO:K07308]
SEN4079  dmsC2; putative dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit C [KO:K07308]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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