KEGG   PATHWAY: pps05320
Entry
pps05320                    Pathway                                

Name
Autoimmune thyroid disease - Pan paniscus (bonobo)
Description
The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in serum and varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction. During HT, self-reactive CD4+ T lymphocytes (Th) recruit B cells and CD8+ T cells (CTL) into the thyroid. Disease progression leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Both autoantibodies and thyroid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been proposed to be responsible for autoimmune thyrocyte depletion. In GD, the TSH-R is the most important autoantigen. Antibodies directed against it mimic the effects of the hormone on thyroid cells, TSH, stimulating autonomous production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine and causing hyperthyroidism. The presence of TSH-R-blocking antibodies that bind the TSH receptor in a similar fashion to the antibodies in patients with Grave's disease but that block rather than activate the receptor explains some cases of atrophic hypothyroidism.
Class
Human Diseases; Immune disease
Pathway map
pps05320  Autoimmune thyroid disease
pps05320

Organism
Pan paniscus (bonobo) [GN:pps]
Gene
100970300  interferon alpha-17-like [KO:K05414]
100967539  interferon alpha-21 [KO:K05414]
100968231  interferon alpha-17 [KO:K05414]
100968579  interferon alpha-7 [KO:K05414]
100969624  interferon alpha-16 [KO:K05414]
100970658  IFNA14; interferon alpha-14 [KO:K05414]
100971675  IFNA6; interferon alpha 6 [KO:K05414]
100972354  IFNA2; interferon alpha 2 [KO:K05414]
100972691  IFNA8; interferon alpha 8 [KO:K05414]
100973049  interferon alpha-1/13 [KO:K05414]
100995734  IFNA5; interferon alpha-5 [KO:K05414]
100969275  interferon alpha-10-like [KO:K05414]
100972005  interferon alpha-1/13-like [KO:K05414]
100968923  interferon alpha-17-like [KO:K05414]
100986750  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-4 beta chain [KO:K06752]
100987433  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-10 beta chain-like [KO:K06752]
100987081  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain [KO:K06752]
100967723  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain [KO:K06752]
100972641  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 2 chain [KO:K06752]
100967376  RLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha-1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
100979649  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 2 chain-like [KO:K06752]
100968989  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM alpha chain [KO:K06752]
100968410  MHC-DMB; HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain [KO:K06752]
100995577  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain [KO:K06752]
100995226  Papa-DPB1; HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain [KO:K06752]
100970847  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain [KO:K06752]
100973583  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 2 chain [KO:K06752]
100972994  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain [KO:K06752]
100993847  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
100993508  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 1 chain [KO:K06752]
100993018  CTLA4; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 [KO:K06538]
100996140  TPO; thyroid peroxidase [KO:K00431] [EC:1.11.1.8]
100990601  TG; thyroglobulin [KO:K10809]
100975083  uncharacterized LOC100975083 [KO:K10785]
100985012  uncharacterized LOC100985012 [KO:K10785]
100988366  uncharacterized LOC100988366 [KO:K10785]
100982662  uncharacterized LOC100982662 [KO:K10785]
100983000  uncharacterized LOC100983000 [KO:K10785]
100995080  uncharacterized LOC100995080 [KO:K10785]
100988045  uncharacterized LOC100988045 [KO:K10785]
100967832  CD80; CD80 molecule [KO:K05412]
100981251  CD86; CD86 molecule [KO:K05413]
100992093  CD28; CD28 molecule [KO:K06470]
100984780  IL2; interleukin 2 [KO:K05429]
100978457  MHC-F; patr class I histocompatibility antigen, CH28 alpha chain [KO:K06751]
100978112  Papa-A; patr class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
100979338  HLA-H; putative HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain H [KO:K06751]
100978774  MHC-G; patr class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain G [KO:K06751]
100993452  HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
100977055  patr class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain E [KO:K06751]
100982294  Papa-C; class I histocompatibility antigen, Gogo-C*0202 alpha chain [KO:K06751]
100982859  PAPA-B; class I histocompatibility antigen, Gogo-B*0101 alpha chain [KO:K06751]
100970360  FASLG; Fas ligand [KO:K04389]
100988526  FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor [KO:K04390]
100979698  PRF1; perforin 1 [KO:K07818]
100987153  GZMB; granzyme B [KO:K01353] [EC:3.4.21.79]
100975410  CD40LG; CD40 ligand [KO:K03161]
100974274  CD40; CD40 molecule [KO:K03160]
100988878  IL4; interleukin 4 [KO:K05430]
100991249  IL5; interleukin 5 [KO:K05428]
100990760  IL10; interleukin 10 [KO:K05443]
100983622  Ig heavy chain Mem5-like [KO:K06856]
100979030  putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV1OR21-1 [KO:K06856]
100970186  putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV4OR15-8 [KO:K06856]
103785315  putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV4OR15-8 [KO:K06856]
103785316  putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV4OR15-8 [KO:K06856]
100989153  putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV4OR15-8 [KO:K06856]
100972767  TSHR; thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [KO:K04249]
100987945  CGA; glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide [KO:K08522]
100967932  TSHB; thyroid stimulating hormone beta [KO:K05251]
Compound
C01382  Iodine
C01829  Thyroxine
C02465  Triiodothyronine
D00636  Amiodarone hydrochloride (JP17/USP)
Reference
  Authors
Fountoulakis S, Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
On the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease: a unifying hypothesis.
  Journal
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:397-409 (2004)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2004.01978.x
Reference
  Authors
Chistiakov DA.
  Title
Immunogenetics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  Journal
J Autoimmune Dis 2:1 (2005)
DOI:10.1186/1740-2557-2-1
Reference
PMID:9534029
  Authors
McIver B, Morris JC.
  Title
The pathogenesis of Graves' disease.
  Journal
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 27:73-89 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70299-1
Reference
  Authors
Stassi G, De Maria R.
  Title
Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 2:195-204 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nri750
Reference
  Authors
Collins J, Gough S.
  Title
Autoimmunity in thyroid disease.
  Journal
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 29 Suppl 2:S417-24 (2002)
DOI:10.1007/s00259-002-0848-8
Reference
  Authors
Ruwhof C, Drexhage HA.
  Title
Iodine and thyroid autoimmune disease in animal models.
  Journal
Thyroid 11:427-36 (2001)
DOI:10.1089/105072501300176381
Reference
  Authors
Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
The role of stress in the clinical expression of thyroid autoimmunity.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1088:382-95 (2006)
DOI:10.1196/annals.1366.015
Reference
  Authors
Prummel MF, Strieder T, Wiersinga WM.
  Title
The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 150:605-18 (2004)
DOI:10.1530/eje.0.1500605
Reference
  Authors
Kopp P.
  Title
The TSH receptor and its role in thyroid disease.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 58:1301-22 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/PL00000941
Related
pathway
pps04210  Apoptosis
pps04514  Cell adhesion molecules
pps04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
pps04612  Antigen processing and presentation
pps04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
pps04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
pps04918  Thyroid hormone synthesis
KO pathway
ko05320   

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