Database: PROSITE(DOC)
Entry: PDOC00167
LinkDB: PDOC00167
Original site: PDOC00167 
{PS00188; BIOTIN}
* Biotin-requiring enzymes attachment site *

Biotin, which plays a  catalytic role in  some carboxyl transfer reactions, is
covalently attached,  via  an  amide  bond,  to  a  lysine  residue in enzymes
requiring this coenzyme [1,2,3,4]. Such enzymes are:

 - Pyruvate carboxylase (EC
 - Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC
 - Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (EC
 - Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (EC
 - Geranoyl-CoA carboxylase (EC
 - Urea carboxylase (EC
 - Oxaloacetate decarboxylase (EC
 - Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (EC
 - Glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase (EC
 - Methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyl-transferase (EC (transcarboxylase).

Sequence data  reveal  that  the  region  around  the biocytin (biotin-lysine)
residue is well conserved and can be used as a signature pattern.

-Consensus pattern: [GDN]-[DEQTR]-x-[LIVMFY]-x(2)-[LIVM]-x-[AIV]-M-K-[LVMAT]-
                    [K is the biotin attachment site]
-Sequences known to belong to this class detected by the pattern: ALL.
-Other sequence(s) detected in Swiss-Prot: NONE.

-Note: The domain  around  the  biotin-binding  lysine residue is evolutionary
 related to  that  around  the  lipoyl-binding  lysine  residue  of 2-oxo acid
 dehydrogenase acyltransferases (see <PDOC00168>).

-Last update: December 2001 / Pattern and text revised.

[ 1] Knowles J.R.
     "The mechanism of biotin-dependent enzymes."
     Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58:195-221(1989).
     PubMed=2673009; DOI=10.1146/
[ 2] Samols D., Thornton C.G., Murtif V.L., Kumar G.K., Haase F.C., Wood H.G.
     "Evolutionary conservation among biotin enzymes."
     J. Biol. Chem. 263:6461-6464(1988).
[ 3] Goss N.H., Wood H.G.
     "Formation of N epsilon-(biotinyl)lysine in biotin enzymes."
     Methods Enzymol. 107:261-278(1984).
[ 4] Shenoy B.C., Xie Y., Park V.L., Kumar G.K., Beegen H., Wood H.G.,
     Samols D.
     "The importance of methionine residues for the catalysis of the biotin
     enzyme, transcarboxylase. Analysis by site-directed mutagenesis."
     J. Biol. Chem. 267:18407-18412(1992).
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