Database: PubMed
Entry: 20133968
LinkDB: 20133968
Original site: 20133968 
     Guo X, Zhao C, Wang F, Zhu Y, Cui Y, Zhou Z,
     Huo R, Sha J.
     Investigation of human testis protein heterogeneity using 2-dimensional
     J Androl. 2010 Jul-Aug;31(4):419-29. doi: 10.2164/jandrol.109.007534. Epub 2010
     The testis is the male gonad responsible for spermatogenesis and male hormone
     secretion. The complicated processes of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis
     determine the complexity of protein expression control in the testis. In this
     study, the heterogeneity of human testis proteins was investigated using
     2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 847 protein spots corresponding to 
     462 unique proteins were identified successfully by mass spectrometry. Notable
     heterogeneity was evidenced by the presence of more than 1 spot with different
     molecular weight and/or Isoelectric point values for each of 180 different
     proteins. Analysis of the detected peptides of these proteins indicated that this
     heterogeneity was partly the result of alternative splicing and/or proteolysis.
     SP_PIR_Keywords analysis suggested that alternative initiation sites and various 
     forms of posttranslational modification may also contribute toward this
     heterogeneity. Using Pro-Q Diamond phosphostain, 68 spots representing 52
     proteins were stained, confirming the presence of phosphorylated forms of these
     proteins in the human testis. These data were used to establish a proteome
     reference database, which can be accessed over the Internet
     ( This database provides an initial reference map
     of the human testis and serves as a useful resource for comparative proteomics
     studies of the human testis under normal and pathological states. The abundant
     protein heterogeneity observed in this study and further investigation of its
     biological significance will contribute toward understanding protein expression
     regulation in the human testis and will generate insight into the molecular
     mechanism of spermatogenesis.

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