KEGG   PATHWAY: rn00010
Entry
rn00010                     Pathway                                
Name
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Description
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
Pathway map
rn00010  Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
rn00010

Module
M00001  Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate [PATH:rn00010]
M00002  Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:rn00010]
M00003  Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P [PATH:rn00010]
M00307  Pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate => acetyl-CoA [PATH:rn00010]
Other DBs
GO: 0006096 0006094
Reaction
R00014  pyruvate:thiamin diphosphate acetaldehydetransferase (decarboxylating)
R00199  ATP:pyruvate,water phosphotransferase
R00200  ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase
R00206  ATP:pyruvate,phosphate phosphotransferase
R00229  acetate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming)
R00235  Acetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
R00341  ATP:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating;phosphoenolpyruvate-forming)
R00431  GTP:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (adding GTP;phosphoenolpyruvate-forming)
R00658  2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase (phosphoenolpyruvate-forming)
R00703  (S)-Lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R00710  Acetaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R00711  Acetaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R00726  ITP:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (adding ITP; phosphoenolpyruvate-forming)
R00746  Ethanol:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R00754  ethanol:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R00755   
R00947  alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
R00959  alpha-D-Glucose 1-phosphate 1,6-phosphomutase
R01015  D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate aldose-ketose-isomerase
R01058  D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R01061  D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating)
R01063  D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating)
R01070  beta-D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming)
R01196  pyruvate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (CoA-acetylating)
R01512  ATP:3-phospho-D-glycerate 1-phosphotransferase
R01516  2,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate 2-phosphohydrolase
R01518  D-phosphoglycerate 2,3-phosphomutase
R01600  ATP:beta-D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R01602  D-glucose 1-epimerase
R01662  3-phospho-D-glycerate 1,2-phosphomutase
R01786  ATP:alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R01788  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate phosphohydrolase
R02073  diphosphate:beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase
R02187  Polyphosphate:D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R02189  Polyphosphate:D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R02569  acetyl-CoA:enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine S-acetyltransferase
R02738  protein-N(pi)-phosphohistidine:D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R02739  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase
R02740  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase
R03270   
R03321  beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase
R04394  protein-N(pi)-phosphohistidine:salicin 6-phosphotransferase
R04779  ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase
R04780  beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase
R05132  protein-N(pi)-phosphohistidine:arbutin 6-phosphotransferase
R05133  Arbutin 6-phosphate glucohydrolase
R05134  Salicin 6-phosphate glucohydrolase
R05198  ethanol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase
R07159  D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
R07618  enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R09084  ADP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase
R09085  ADP:D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R09086  ADP:D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase
R09127  ethanol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase
R09479  ethanol:quinone oxidoreductase
R09532  2,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate 3-phosphohydrolase
R10860  D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Compound
C00022  Pyruvate
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00031  D-Glucose
C00033  Acetate
C00036  Oxaloacetate
C00068  Thiamin diphosphate
C00074  Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00103  D-Glucose 1-phosphate
C00111  Glycerone phosphate
C00118  D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00186  (S)-Lactate
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00221  beta-D-Glucose
C00236  3-Phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate
C00267  alpha-D-Glucose
C00469  Ethanol
C00631  2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01159  2,3-Bisphospho-D-glycerate
C01172  beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01451  Salicin
C05125  2-(alpha-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate
C05345  beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C06186  Arbutin
C06187  Arbutin 6-phosphate
C06188  Salicin 6-phosphate
C15972  Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine
C15973  Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine
C16255  [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
Reference
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)
Related
pathway
rn00020  Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
rn00030  Pentose phosphate pathway
rn00500  Starch and sucrose metabolism
rn00620  Pyruvate metabolism
rn00640  Propanoate metabolism
rn00710  Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
KO pathway
ko00010   

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