Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Serine is derived from 3-phospho-D-glycerate, an intermediate of glycolysis [MD:
], and glycine is derived from serine. Threonine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. In bacteria and plants, threonine is derived from aspartate [MD:
Metabolism; Amino acid metabolism
rn00260 Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism Ortholog table
M00018 Threonine biosynthesis, aspartate => homoserine => threonine [PATH: rn00260]
M00020 Serine biosynthesis, glycerate-3P => serine [PATH: rn00260]
M00338 Cysteine biosynthesis, homocysteine + serine => cysteine [PATH: rn00260]
R00364 Glycine:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase (deaminating)
R00366 glycine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating)
R00367 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:glycine N-methyltransferase
R00371 Acetyl-CoA:glycine C-acetyltransferase
R00372 Glycine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R00480 ATP:L-aspartate 4-phosphotransferase
R00565 L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase
R00582 O-phospho-L-serine phosphohydrolase
R00585 L-Serine:pyruvate aminotransferase
R00588 L-Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
R00610 sarcosine:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating)
R00611 sarcosine:electron-transfer flavoprotein oxidoreductase (demethylating)
R00751 L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming)
R00830 succinyl-CoA:glycine C-succinyltransferase (decarboxylating)
R00891 L-serine hydro-lyase (adding hydrogen sulfide, L-cysteine-forming)
R00945 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate:glycine hydroxymethyltransferase
R00996 L-threonine ammonia-lyase (2-oxobutanoate-forming)
R01001 L-cystathionine cysteine-lyase (deaminating; 2-oxobutanoate-forming)
R01022 choline:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase
R01025 choline:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
R01290 L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine; L-cystathionine-forming)
R01388 D-Glycerate:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase
R01392 D-glycerate:NADP+ 2-oxidoreductase
R01465 L-threonine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R01466 O-phospho-L-homoserine phosphate-lyase (adding water;L-threonine-forming)
R01511 D-Glycerate-3-phosphate phosphohydrolase
R01513 3-Phospho-D-glycerate:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase
R01514 ATP:(R)-glycerate 3-phosphotransferase
R01518 D-phosphoglycerate 2,3-phosphomutase
R01564 N,N-dimethylglycine,5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating,5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate-forming)
R01565 N,N-dimethylglycine,5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:electron-transferflavoprotein oxidoreductase (demethylating,5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate-forming)
R01566 Creatine amidinohydrolase
R01771 ATP:L-homoserine O-phosphotransferase
R01773 L-Homoserine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R01775 L-homoserine:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R01800 CDP-diacylglycerol:L-serine 3-phosphatidyltransferase
R01883 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
R02291 L-Aspartate-4-semialdehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating)
R02529 aminoacetone:oxygen oxidoreductase(deaminating)
R02565 p-cumic alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R02566 p-Cumic alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R02722 L-serine hydro-lyase [adding 1-C-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate; L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-forming]
R02821 Trimethylaminoacetate:L-homosysteine S-methyltransferase
R03425 glycine:lipoylprotein oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and acceptor-aminomethylating)
R03759 (R)-1-Aminopropan-2-ol:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R03815 dihydrolipoylprotein:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R04125 [protein]-S8-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine:tetrahydrofolate aminomethyltransferase (ammonia-forming)
R04173 3-Phosphoserine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R06171 L-allo-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming)
R06977 L-2,4-diaminobutyrate:2-oxoglutarate 4-aminotransferase
R06978 acetyl-CoA:L-2,4-diaminobutanoate N4-acetyltransferase
R07244 S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N,N-dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase
R07409 choline,reduced-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase
R07650 L-2,4-diaminobutanoate carboxy-lyase
R08211 betaine aldehyde:oxygen oxidoreductase
R08572 ATP:(R)-glycerate 2-phosphotransferase
R09801 N2-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutanoate amidohydrolase
R09805 L-Aspartate-4-semialdehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R10060 S-adenosyl-L-methionine:glycine N-methyltransferase [N,N-dimethylglycine-forming]
R10061 S-adenosyl-L-methionine:sarcosine N-methyltransferase [betaine-forming]
R10851 L-allo-threonine:NADP+ 3-oxidoreductase
R12787 glycine betaine:[Co(I) glycine betaine-specific corrinoid protein] Co-methyltransferase
R12967 sarcosine, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:O2 oxidoreductase (demethylating,5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate-forming)
R13016 glycine betaine,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating)
R13028 N,N-dimethylglycine:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (demethylating)
R13029 sarcosine:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (demethylating)
C00441 L-Aspartate 4-semialdehyde
C03508 L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Kuhlmann AU, Bremer E.
Osmotically regulated synthesis of the compatible solute ectoine in Bacillus pasteurii and related Bacillus spp.
Canovas D, Borges N, Vargas C, Ventosa A, Nieto JJ, Santos H.
Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine.
Bursy J, Pierik AJ, Pica N, Bremer E.
Osmotically induced synthesis of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved ectoine hydroxylase.
Garcia-Estepa R, Argandona M, Reina-Bueno M, Capote N, Iglesias-Guerra F, Nieto JJ, Vargas C.
The ectD gene, which is involved in the synthesis of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine, is essential for thermoprotection of the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens.
Arevalo-Rodriguez M, Pan X, Boeke JD, Heitman J
FKBP12 controls aspartate pathway flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to prevent toxic intermediate accumulation.
Rees WD, Hay SM
The biosynthesis of threonine by mammalian cells: expression of a complete bacterial biosynthetic pathway in an animal cell.
Jacques SL, Nieman C, Bareich D, Broadhead G, Kinach R, Honek JF, Wright GD
Characterization of yeast homoserine dehydrogenase, an antifungal target: the invariant histidine 309 is important for enzyme integrity.
Chen X, Jhee KH, Kruger WD
Production of the neuromodulator H2S by cystathionine beta-synthase via the condensation of cysteine and homocysteine.
rn00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
rn00250 Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
rn00270 Cysteine and methionine metabolism
rn00290 Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
rn00330 Arginine and proline metabolism
rn00564 Glycerophospholipid metabolism
rn00630 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism