KEGG   PATHWAY: rn00270
Entry
rn00270                     Pathway                                
Name
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Description
Cysteine and methionine are sulfur-containing amino acids. Cysteine is synthesized from serine through different pathways in different organism groups. In bacteria and plants, cysteine is converted from serine (via acetylserine) by transfer of hydrogen sulfide [MD:M00021]. In animals, methionine-derived homocysteine is used as sulfur source and its condensation product with serine (cystathionine) is converted to cysteine [MD:M00338]. Cysteine is metabolized to pyruvate in multiple routes. Methionine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. In bacteria and plants, methionine is synthesized from aspartate [MD:M00017]. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), synthesized from methionine and ATP, is a methyl group donor in many important transfer reactions including DNA methylation for regulation of gene expression. SAM may also be used to regenerate methionine in the methionine salvage pathway [MD:M00034].
Class
Metabolism; Amino acid metabolism
Pathway map
rn00270  Cysteine and methionine metabolism
rn00270

Module
M00017  Methionine biosynthesis, aspartate => homoserine => methionine [PATH:rn00270]
M00021  Cysteine biosynthesis, serine => cysteine [PATH:rn00270]
M00034  Methionine salvage pathway [PATH:rn00270]
M00035  Methionine degradation [PATH:rn00270]
M00338  Cysteine biosynthesis, homocysteine + serine => cysteine [PATH:rn00270]
M00368  Ethylene biosynthesis, methionine => ethylene [PATH:rn00270]
M00609  Cysteine biosynthesis, methionine => cysteine [PATH:rn00270]
Other DBs
GO: 0006534 0006555
Reaction
R00075  S-adenosyl-L-methionine:S-adenosyl-L-methionine 3-amino-3-carboxypropyltransferase
R00177  ATP:L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase
R00178  S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxy-lyase [S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine-forming]
R00179  S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-forming)
R00192  S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase
R00194  S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine homocysteinylribohydrolase
R00480  ATP:L-aspartate 4-phosphotransferase
R00586  acetyl-CoA:L-serine O-acetyltransferase
R00590  L-serine hydro-lyase
R00648  L-Methionine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating)
R00650  S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:L-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
R00651  O-acetyl-L-homoserine:methanethiol 3-amino-3-carboxypropyltransferase
R00653  N-formyl-L-methionine amidohydrolase
R00654  L-methionine methanethiol-lyase (deaminating;2-oxobutanoate-forming)
R00657   
R00782  L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming)
R00863  3-Sulfino-L-alanine 4-carboxy-lyase
R00892  L-cysteine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R00893  L-Cysteine:oxygen oxidoreductase
R00895  L-Cysteine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R00896  L-cysteine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R00897  O3-acetyl-L-serine:hydrogen-sulfide 2-amino-2-carboxyethyltransferase
R00900  L-cysteine,glutathione:NADP+ oxidoreductase (disulfide-forming)
R00901  L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding sulfite; L-cysteate-forming)
R00903  cysteine racemase
R00946  5-methyltetrahydrofolate:L-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
R00997  1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate aminohydrolase (isomerizing)
R00999  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine succinate-lyase (deaminating; 2-oxobutanoate-forming)
R01001  L-cystathionine cysteine-lyase (deaminating; 2-oxobutanoate-forming)
R01113  Glutathione:L-cystine oxidoreductase
R01286  L-cystathionine L-homocysteine-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming)
R01287  O-acetyl-L-homoserine:hydrogen sulfide S-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase
R01288  O4-succinyl-L-homoserine:hydrogen sulfide S-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase
R01290  L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine; L-cystathionine-forming)
R01291  S-(5-deoxy-D-ribos-5-yl)-L-homocysteine homocysteine-lyase [(4S)-4,5-dihydroxypentan-2,3-dione-forming]
R01292  Glutathione:homocystine oxidoreductase
R01401  methylthioadenosine methylthioribohydrolase
R01402  S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine:phosphate S-methyl-5-thio-alpha-D-ribosyl-transferase
R01513  3-Phospho-D-glycerate:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase
R01773  L-Homoserine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R01775  L-homoserine:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R01776  Acetyl-CoA:L-homoserine O-acetyltransferase
R01777  Succinyl-CoA:L-homoserine O-succinyltransferase
R01874  D-cysteine sulfide-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming)
R01920  S-adenosylmethioninamine:putrescine 3-aminopropyltransferase
R02025  L-methionine:oxidized-thioredoxin S-oxidoreductase
R02026  O-acetyl-L-homoserine acetate-lyase (L-homocysteine forming)
R02291  L-Aspartate-4-semialdehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating)
R02408  L-cystine thiocysteine-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming)
R02409  Coenzyme A:oxidized-glutathione oxidoreductase
R02433  L-cysteate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R02618   
R02619  3-sulfino-L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R02821  Trimethylaminoacetate:L-homosysteine S-methyltransferase
R02869  S-adenosylmethioninamine:spermidine 3-aminopropyltransferase
R03104  3-Mercaptolactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R03105  3-mercaptopyruvate:sulfide sulfurtransferase
R03132  O-acetyl-L-serine:thiosulfate 2-amino-2-carboxyethyltransferase
R03217  O-Acetyl-L-homoserine succinate-lyase (adding cysteine)
R03260  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine succinate-lyase (adding cysteine)
R04143  ATP:S5-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose 1-phosphotransferase
R04173  3-Phosphoserine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R04405  5-Methyltetrahydropteroyltri-L-glutamate:L-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
R04420  5-methylthio-5-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate ketol-isomerase
R04858  S-adenosyl-L-methionine:DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase
R04860   
R04861   
R05693  (R)-2-hydroxyacid:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R07136  (2R)-3-sulfolactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
R07137  (2R)-3-sulfolactate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R07214  1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxygenase (ethylene-forming)
R07274  O-phospho-L-serine:hydrogen-sulfide 2-amino-2-carboxyethyltransferase
R07363  1,2-dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one:oxygen oxidoreductase (formate- and CO-forming)
R07364  1,2-dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one:oxygen oxidoreductase (formate-forming)
R07392  S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribulose-1-phosphate hydro-lyase
R07393  2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentyl-1-phosphate keto---enol-isomerase
R07394  2-hydroxy-5-(methylthio)-3-oxopent-1-enyl phosphate phosphohydrolase
R07395  5-(methylthio)-2,3-dioxopentyl-phosphate phosphohydrolase (isomerizing)
R07396   
R07633  3-sulfolactate bisulfite-lyase
R07634  L-cysteate bisulfite-lyase (deaminating)
R08699  3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate:2-aminoacrylate C-sulfotransferase
R08940  acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing)
R09660  S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine amidohydrolase
R09668  S-methyl-5'-thioinosine:phosphate S-methyl-5-thio-alpha-D-ribosyl-transferase
R10305  O3-acetyl-L-serine:L-homocysteine S-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)transferase
R10404   
R10409   
R10991  2-aminobutanoate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
R10992  L-alanine:2-oxobutanoate aminotransferase
R10993  L-glutamate:2-aminobutanoate gamma-ligase (ADP-forming)
R10994  gamma-L-glutamyl-L-2-aminobutyrate:glycine ligase (ADP-forming)
R12055  L-methionine:indole-3-pyruvic acid aminotransferase
R12092  thiosulfate:3-phospho-L-serine thiosulfotransferase
R12342  ADP:L-serine 3-phosphotransferase
R12505  hydrogen sulfide:L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde sulfurtransferase
R12507  L-glutamine:4-(methylsulfanyl)-2-oxobutanoate aminotransferase
R12718  S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribulose 1-phosphate 1,3-isomerase
R12751   
R12946  S-methyl-1-thio-D-xylulose 5-phosphate:glutathione methylthiotransferase
Compound
C00019  S-Adenosyl-L-methionine
C00021  S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine
C00022  Pyruvate
C00041  L-Alanine
C00049  L-Aspartate
C00051  Glutathione
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00073  L-Methionine
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00109  2-Oxobutanoate
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00170  5'-Methylthioadenosine
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00409  Methanethiol
C00441  L-Aspartate 4-semialdehyde
C00491  L-Cystine
C00506  L-Cysteate
C00606  3-Sulfino-L-alanine
C00793  D-Cysteine
C00957  Mercaptopyruvate
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01005  O-Phospho-L-serine
C01077  O-Acetyl-L-homoserine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01137  S-Adenosylmethioninamine
C01180  4-Methylthio-2-oxobutanoic acid
C01234  1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate
C01817  L-Homocystine
C01962  Thiocysteine
C02218  Dehydroalanine
C02291  L-Cystathionine
C02356  (S)-2-Aminobutanoate
C02989  L-Methionine S-oxide
C03082  4-Phospho-L-aspartate
C03089  5-Methylthio-D-ribose
C03145  N-Formylmethionine
C03232  3-Phosphonooxypyruvate
C03539  S-Ribosyl-L-homocysteine
C04188  S-Methyl-5-thio-D-ribose 1-phosphate
C04582  S-Methyl-5-thio-D-ribulose 1-phosphate
C05324  Nicotianamine
C05524  Aminoacyl-L-methionine
C05526  S-Glutathionyl-L-cysteine
C05527  3-Sulfinylpyruvate
C05528  3-Sulfopyruvate
C05823  3-Mercaptolactate
C05824  S-Sulfo-L-cysteine
C06547  Ethylene
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C09306  Sulfur dioxide
C11437  1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
C11481  HSO3-
C11499  (S)-3-Sulfolactate
C11537  (2R)-3-Sulfolactate
C15606  1,2-Dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one
C15650  2,3-Diketo-5-methylthiopentyl-1-phosphate
C15651  2-Hydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentenyl-1-phosphate
C18049  N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactone
C19787  5'-S-Methyl-5'-thioinosine
C21015  gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-2-aminobutyrate
C21016  Ophthalmate
C22359  S-Methyl-1-thio-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
Reference
  Authors
Sekowska A, Denervaud V, Ashida H, Michoud K, Haas D, Yokota A, Danchin A
  Title
Bacterial variations on the methionine salvage pathway.
  Journal
BMC Microbiol 4:9 (2004)
DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-4-9
Reference
  Authors
Ashida H, Saito Y, Kojima C, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Yokota A.
  Title
A functional link between RuBisCO-like protein of Bacillus and photosynthetic RuBisCO.
  Journal
Science 302:286-90 (2003)
DOI:10.1126/science.1086997
Reference
  Authors
Sekowska A, Danchin A.
  Title
The methionine salvage pathway in Bacillus subtilis.
  Journal
BMC Microbiol 2:8 (2002)
DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-2-8
Reference
  Authors
Berger BJ, English S, Chan G, Knodel MH.
  Title
Methionine regeneration and aminotransferases in Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 185:2418-31 (2003)
DOI:10.1128/JB.185.8.2418-2431.2003
Reference
  Authors
Goyer A, Collakova E, Shachar-Hill Y, Hanson AD
  Title
Functional characterization of a methionine gamma-lyase in Arabidopsis and its implication in an alternative to the reverse trans-sulfuration pathway.
  Journal
Plant Cell Physiol 48:232-42 (2007)
DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcl055
Reference
  Authors
Rebeille F, Jabrin S, Bligny R, Loizeau K, Gambonnet B, Van Wilder V, Douce R, Ravanel S
  Title
Methionine catabolism in Arabidopsis cells is initiated by a gamma-cleavage process and leads to S-methylcysteine and isoleucine syntheses.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15687-92 (2006)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0606195103
Reference
  Authors
Pirkov I, Norbeck J, Gustafsson L, Albers E
  Title
A complete inventory of all enzymes in the eukaryotic methionine salvage pathway.
  Journal
FEBS J 275:4111-20 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06552.x
Reference
  Authors
Ashida H, Saito Y, Kojima C, Yokota A
  Title
Enzymatic characterization of 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase of the methionine salvage pathway in Bacillus subtilis.
  Journal
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:959-67 (2008)
DOI:10.1271/bbb.70651
Reference
  Authors
Kitabatake M, So MW, Tumbula DL, Soll D
  Title
Cysteine biosynthesis pathway in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri encoded by acquired bacterial genes?
  Journal
J Bacteriol 182:143-5 (2000)
DOI:10.1128/JB.182.1.143-145.2000
Reference
  Authors
Mino K, Ishikawa K
  Title
Characterization of a novel thermostable O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase from Aeropyrum pernix K1.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 185:2277-84 (2003)
DOI:10.1128/JB.185.7.2277-2284.2003
Reference
  Authors
Tanabe S
  Title
Development of assay methods for endogenous inorganic sulfur compounds and sulfurtransferases and evaluation of the physiological functions of bound sulfur.
  Journal
Yakugaku Zasshi 128:881-900 (2008)
DOI:10.1248/yakushi.128.881
Reference
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Gutierrez JA, Crowder T, Rinaldo-Matthis A, Ho MC, Almo SC, Schramm VL
  Title
Transition state analogs of 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase disrupt quorum sensing.
  Journal
Nat Chem Biol 5:251-7 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nchembio.153
Related
pathway
rn00010  Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
rn00250  Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
rn00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
rn00290  Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
rn00430  Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
rn00480  Glutathione metabolism
rn00620  Pyruvate metabolism
rn00640  Propanoate metabolism
rn00770  Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
rn00900  Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
rn00920  Sulfur metabolism
KO pathway
ko00270   

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